The primary aim of the project was the development of instruments and techniques to carry out in utero endoscopy in pregnancy (embryo-fetoscopy). At the start of the project only one clinically acceptable fetoscope was available on the market, having a 1.9 mm diameter, and being relatively short. It was based on rod lens technology, making it rigid rather than semiflexible, avoiding any bending of the scope. The new instruments of 1.0 mm (early pregnancy) and 2.0 mm (mid-trimester fetoscopic operations) were initially designed for use in obstetrical endoscopy. However, their applications are much wider in the field of mini-laparoscopy and mini-hysteroscopy. The resolution has proved to be clinically satisfying, and the fiberoptic basis makes it possible to bend the instrument in particular situations. The very small diameters have made it possible to operate very early in pregnancy.