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THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED LEAD ACID BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE SERVICE WHICH ARE MAINTENANCE FREE AND FULLY RECYCLABLE

Objective


As a result of the work, several battery variants were produced for parameter, and full scale bench testing, as a 192 volt electric vehicle battery. The specific energy levels achieved by the batteries were in line with design considerations and very respectable by the standards of currently available commercial batteries. Unfortunately the cycle life of all variants was poor under the test procedures adopted.

This resulted in a change to the programme, so that a full scale investigation into the reasons for the poor cycle performance could be carried out. The reason for the failure was quite obviously severe softening of the positive active mass, but the cause of this softening was less easy to determine. Life cycling of a commercially available battery under the same test conditions produced a similar failure, whereas the same battery recycled under conditions by which the charge factor was controlled, gave considerably improved life. Thus it has been concluded that the method of charging was a major factor in the failure, although questions also remain over the ability of glass mat separators to retain their properties under compression, and thus adequately restrain the positive active material during cycling.
The proposed research is aimed at developing a fully recyclable, maintenance free lead-acid battery to meet the exacting demands of performance and life that will be required for passenger carrying vehicles. The work will seek to improve on currently achievable energy density levels and cycling performance of the valve regulated type of battery construction. In order to achieve these improvements it is anticipated that it may be necessary to incorporate some high value materials into the battery. Work will therefore be carried out on methods to recover these materials during the recycling operation.

The principal research tasks are:

a) Improvements in Active Material Utilisation
b) Extension of cycle life
c) Improvements to separator and grid alloy materials for valve regulated batteries
d) Recovery of the high value materials during the recycling process
e) Production of advanced lead-acid batteries for test by the Joint Research Committee of the European motor industry.

Successful completion of this programme will enable the battery industry to design and build quality, high performance, lead-acid batteries for Electric Vehicles which will be fully recyclable after use.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

European Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium
Address
42 Street
W1N 3LQ London
United Kingdom

Participants (11)

AEA Technology plc
United Kingdom
Address
Harwell Laboratory
OX11 0RA Didcot
Britannia Refined Metals Ltd
United Kingdom
Address
Botany Road
DA11 9BG Northfleet
CMP Batteries Ltd
United Kingdom
Address
Salford Road Over Hulton
BL5 1DD Bolton
Fiamm SpA
Italy
Address
Viale Europa 63
36075 Montecchio Maggiore
HAGEN BATTERIE AG
Germany
Address
Coesterweg 45
4770 Soest
Hawker Batteries Group
United Kingdom
Address

LE16 9EZ Market Harborough
Renault
France
Address
9-11 Avenue Du 18 Juin 1940
92500 Rueil-malmaison
SOL & HYDRO
Germany
Address
Helmholtzstraße 8
7900 Ulm
Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel
Germany
Address

3500 Kassel
Université de Nancy I (Université Henri Poincaré)
France
Address

54506 Vandoeuvre-les-nancy
Varta Batterie AG
Germany
Address
Gundelhardtstraße 72
65779 Kelkheim