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Sorption techniques for the removal of nox in exhaust gases of heavy-duty vehicles

Objective



Objectives and content
The most fuel efficient power source for transportation
currently known is the direct injection diesel engine.
It is indispensable for the propulsion of heavy-duty
diesel trucks and buses for the next decades. Despite
its general low engine out emission level there is a
remarkable contribution of diesel engines to air
pollution, particularly with respect to NOx. Appropriate
aftertreatment systems comparable to the TWC for gasoline
engines do not exist. The currently most promising NOx
reduction scheme suitable for diesel engines based on SCR
techniques exhibits limited efficiency and is not yet
commercially available. Up to now it is not known if SCR
technologies are applicable to series production.
Therefore, alternative approaches efficiently reducing
NOx emissions of heavy duty vehicles are urgently needed
to meet the EC emission standard for diesel engines EURO
IV (proposed implementation in 2005). To meet these
future emission limits, it will be necessary to combine
the development and research activities of both internal
engine measures and aftertreatment systems. Engine
specific measures to decrease NOx raw emissions result in
low exhaust gas temperatures. Accordingly, a combined
aftertreatment system for NOx removal has to work in the
low temperature region where SCR techniques mostly fail.
Sorption techniques, however, seem to be a very promising
alternative.
The proposed project involves two major objectives. The
first is the development of a Dl HD truck engine
demonstrator equipped with a SNR system containing NOx
adsorbing materials, a desorption unit and a
recirculation line. The crucial point of this technique
is the non-catalytic reduction of NOx in the combustion
chamber. The second major objective is the development
of a Dl HD truck engine demonstrator equipped with a NOxStorage Catalyst (NSC) combined with the very promising
"continuously regenerating soot trap". Under lean
conditions the NOx will be stored in the NSC unit. For
regeneration the engine will be operated under rich
conditions. The soot formed under these conditions will
be stored in the trap, which is regenerated subsequently
via the chemical reaction of NO2 with the carbon load.
Both demonstrators use sorption technologies for the
first step of NOx removal from the exhaust gas but
different technical approaches for converting NOx to
nitrogen. The aim of both demonstrators is to fulfil the
proposed future EURO IV standards without an increased
fuel consumption.
Within the proposed project the development of NOx
reduction schemes for heavy-duty engines is connected
with three major research activities. The first activity
include new formulations and improvements of NOx storage
compounds as well as of NSCs in combination with a CRT
unit. Investigations concerning sorption and reaction
kinetics as well as numerical simulations of the
processes investigated will be performed. The second
research activity will include engine test bench
investigations evaluating both NOx reduction schemes
mentioned. The subject within the third research
activity is on one hand the application of the SNR scheme
to heavy duty diesel engines including development of
tailpipe units, i.e. valves and actuators. Furthermore,
the realisation of the NSC-CRT system has to be performed
through engine management measures without penalties in
fuel consumption.
The objectives of the project will be realised through a
close collaboration between the participating
organisations with complementary experimental and
analytical techniques and expertise. The industry
partners within the proposed project are represented by
one European car manufacturer (Daimler-Benz), one
European catalyst supplier (Johnson Matthey) and one
European supplier of technical ceramics (Ceramics &
Composites). Six universities with high competence in
the development of new materials (University of Leuven
with two institutes and University of Strasbourg), in
material characterisation and reaction kinetics
(Universities of Gothenburg and Mulhouse) as well as in
computer modelling (University of Athens) will complement
the project. All together the project partners will
represent six different countries with five areas of
expertise.

Coordinator

N/A
Address
Mercedesstrasse 137
70546 Stuttgart
Germany

Participants (8)

Boostec SA
France
Address
Zone Industrielle De Bazet Ouest
65460 Bazet
CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Sweden
Address
3,Fysikgränd 3
412 96 Goeteborg
JOHNSON MATTHEY PLC (TRADING AS SYNETIX)
United Kingdom
Address
Orchard Road
SG8 5HE Royston,herts
KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN
Belgium
Address
2,Kasteelpartk Arenberg, 44
3001 Heverlee
KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN
Belgium
Address
92,Kasteelpark Arenberg 23
3001 Heverlee
NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS*ETHNICON METSOVION POLYTECHNION
Greece
Address
9,Heroon Polytechniou 9 Zographou Campus
15773 Athens
UNIVERSITÉ DE HAUTE ALSACE
France
Address
25,Rue De Chemnitz 25
68200 Mulhouse
Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg 1
France
Address
1,Rue Blaise Pascal 1
67008 Strasbourg