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Study of the Indirect and Direct Influences on Climate of Anthropogenic Trace Gas Emissions

Objective


To improve the understanding of the direct and indirect climate inluences of anthropogenic trace species in the atmosphere.



The main focus is on the estimation and explanation of changes in atmospheric chemistry and consequent climate forcings caused by radiatively active gases and aerosols.

The project is a combined effort by researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry and climate modelling, and is building upon the collaboration and results obtained during the first SINDICATE project.

The chemistry general circulation model ECHAM, which includes troposphere and stratosphere descriptions of higher hydrocarbon and heterogeneous chemistry schemes, descriptions of aerosol formation, growth and removal processes, and a radiation scheme to calculate radiative forcings, will be further developed.

The off-line transport/chemistry model TM2 will likewise be further developed. The model uses ECMWF and ECHAM calculated meteorological fields, and is extended to include higher hydrocarbon and heterogeneous chemistry schemes, descriptions of aerosol formation, growth and removal processes, and a radiation scheme to calculate climate forcings.

A 'Zoom' model of TM2 model (1 by 1 horizontal resolution) will be developed for use on regional scales (e. g. Europe) for comparison with data from measurin campaigns and relatively dense monitoring networks.

The ECHAM and TM2 models will be validated by systematic comparisons between calculated and observed concentrations of NMHC, CH4, NOx, CO, SO2, and the reaction products ozone, sulfate and nitrate.

Based on these developments direct and indirect climate forcings for changing concentrations of NMHC, CH4, CFCs, N2O, NOx, CO and SO2 will be calculated. The climate responses from changing NMHC, CH4, CFCs, N2O, NOx , CO, and SO2 emissions and concentrations for the period from 1880 to present will be established and compared with observed trends in temperature, precipitation and trace gas concentrations.

The impact of the Pinatubo eruption on the concentration of stratospheric ozone and the effects on the temperature and the circulation in the stratosphere will be calculated and compared with observations.

Coordinator

MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN E.V.
Address
Bundesstra¯e 55
20146 Hamburg
Germany

Participants (6)

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Italy
Address
Via Enrico Fermi 1, Tp 460
21020 Barasso
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
France
Address
Avenue De La Terrasse
91198 Gif-sur-yvette
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN E.V.
Germany
Address
Johann Joachim-becher-weg 27
55020 Mainz
ROYAL NETHERLANDS METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE
Netherlands
Address
10,Wilhelminalaan 10
3730 AE De Bilt
STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITET
Sweden
Address
12,Svante Arrheniusväg 12, Arrhenius Laboratory
106 91 Stockholm
UTRECHT UNIVERSITY
Netherlands
Address
5,Princetonplein 5
3584 CC Utrecht