Skip to main content

Remote sensing support for analysis of coasts

Deliverables

Summary: Use of different satellite and airborne remote sensors have been used in order to monitor some of sea parameters essential to describe coastal dynamics. Investigation of the applicability of the methodology for the specific Mediterranean coastal was made: 1) Implementation of offshore and coastal wind and sea state over a 7 year period based on data acquired by microwave satellites processed through suitable models for two sites. Accurate comparison of such coastal databases with in situ data demonstrated a good comparability for significant height and period of the waves using the two methods of measurements, while further efforts have to be made to make wave direction derived by satellite more reliable. 2) Reliability of SAR imagery for measuring sea state parameters and wind vectors was also demonstrated. 3) Calculation of longshore and sand transport rate using the coastal sea state databases and comparison with the ones derived using only in situ data (from anchorage buoys).
Summary: Use of different satellite and airborne remote sensors have been used in order to monitor some sea parameters essential to describe coastal dynamics. For each application, investigation of the applicability of the methodology for the specific Mediterranean coastal was made: 1) Analysis of Total Suspended Matter using NOAA/AVHRR, MOS, Kandsat TM and airborne CASI, which demonstrated the complementarity of these tools for a mesoscale and local scale monitoring. 2) Analysis of sea bottom using optical and microwave sensors in three sites of Mediterranean coastal area. Bathymetric charts up to 30m were provided. Validation with in situ data was made that demonstrated the applicability at a certain extent of the approach followed in the Mediterranean coastal area. Sand granulometry distribution and carbonate content assessment, relying on optical sensors, highlighting the need of further analyzing the operational use of such a methodology for sand investigations.
Summary: This project is about changing current patterns of resource and energy use, as shaped by urban utility services for water, sewage, electricity and solid waste. In the past, strategies for minimizing resource use and its environmental impact have focused on technological efficiency and innovation, state regulation, market incentives and information campaigns for consumers. The project acknowledges the significant progress already achieved by these strategies, but argues - on the basis of empirical analysis of obstacles and opportunities to achieving environmental policy objectives - how the ability to tap the huge potential of infrastructure networks to improve environmental quality will depend in future on understanding how infrastructure management is shaped by local context, actor logics and decision-making processes. This is particularly important today, when utility services across Europe are having to adapt to concurrent - yet often divergent - pressures of liberalization, new government funding and growing public concern for service quality and costs.
Summary: Implementation of the Catalogue Interoperability Protocol (CIP) software for putting the RESSAC project results into the CEO system. It has been developed based on an existing (freeware) implementation of the Z39.50 protocol (Isite), developed by CNIDR, in order to come to a CIP-Light version, which supports basic CIP functionality and is easily portability for remote sensing and product providers.
Summary: A new tool for analyzing urban expansion and making urban forecasts, following different planning scenarios was developed. The application was implemented relying on ARC-INFO functionalities (GRID module) and taking into account urban distribution derived by satellite in the studied area for a qualitative analysis of the phenomena and the model devising. It relies on the definition of spatial "factors" - areas from which new urban growth could start - and "constraints" - areas where urban expansion is not possible/allowed - which "guide" the urban expansion spatial distribution. The selection and suitable combination of the factors and constraints layers is interactive and made by the user through a tailored interface. The final output is a map showing new built-up areas in the studied area taking into account the number of km2 to be built to respond to new population growth and the different planning scenarios (factors and constraints). These final maps showing the impact of the different scenarios of urban expansion on a specific area could provide an useful tool to land use planners, also helping them to illustrate the results of different planning decisions to the public. Direct benefits to the Planning Division (partner of the Consortium): - check of the impact of different future scenarios on a restricted area considering the number of km2 to be built up to 2020; - upgraded features and functions of its hardware and software equipment, being so able to directly manage all the outcomes of the project, also through a powered Geographic Information software.
Summary: Coastal area transformation was identified using two satellite sensors: SPOT Panchromatic and Landsat TM. 1) In the studied case, coastline changes in a 7 year period (1987 - 1994) - based on the analysis of SPOT panchromatic images - were rather limited (taking into account the satellite geometrical resolution of 10m) and mainly due to the presence of anthropic structures (ports, barriers, and protection structures). The carried out analysis can be considered as a first step towards a permanent monitoring of the coastline transformation to be performed relying also on other platforms recently launched, or planned to be launched in the near future, equipped with more suitable sensors (IRS-1C and D, Earth Watch Quick Bird, EROS). 2) An analysis of land use changes over a ten-year period (1987-1996) - based on Landsat TM processing: image classification using CORINE legend and change detection analysis based on multi Date Change Detection Using Post Classification and "from to" Matrix - showed and quantified how much the main land use changes are dependant on urban and industrial growth around the major cities and are caused by new settlements along the coast and inland regions in the studied area. An evaluation of classification accuracy was made using in-situ observations. Direct benefits to the Planning Department (partner of the Consortium): -acquisition of updated information and recent transformation trends in order to check possible discrepancies with the master plan of the area. -introduction to the potentialities and use of remotely sensed information in this field to support their planning purposes.

Exploitable results

Use of different satellite and airborne remote sensors have been used in order to monitor some of sea parameters essential to describe coastal dynamics. Investigation of the applicability of the methodology for the specific Mediterranean coast was made: - implementation of offshore and coastal wind and sea state over a seven year period based on data acquired by microwave satellites processed through suitable models for two sites. Accurate comparison of such coastal databases with in situ data demonstrated a good comparability for significant height and period of the waves using the two methods of measurements, while further efforts have to be made to make wave direction derived by satellite more reliable. - Reliability of SAR imagery for measuring sea state parameters and wind vectors was also demonstrated. - Calculation of longshore sand transport rate using the coastal sea state databases and comparison with the ones derived using only in situ data (from anchorage buoys).