The emissions of chlorinated compounds and sub-micron particles which are mostly enriched with toxic metals, generated in cement kilns fired on alternative fuels has recently gained significant importance due to perceived public health risk. Higher combustion temperatures are desirable for the destruction of chlorinated compounds, which in turn enhance the evaporation of volatile metals and consequently the emissions of sub-micron particles. Emissions of these pollutants depend on the kiln design and operating conditions, alternative fuel type, as well as on the amount of non combustible materials, precursor elements, and compounds present in the alternative fuel. In this proposed study, most of the formation/destruction and emissions variables of these pollutants will be investigated in both laboratory-scale furnaces and industrial-scale cement kilns under a broad range of operating conditions, burning blends of coal and alternative fuels. For the numerical prediction of Chlorinated compounds and sub-micron particles two sub-models will be developed based on global mechanisms for chlorinated compounds and for the fragmentation, nucleation, coagulation, condensation processes of sub-micron particle formation.
Subsequently, these sub-modes will be appended as post-processors to the CINAR multi-fuel parent CFD code that solves for the aerodynamics, combustion and heat transfer characteristics in combustors fired with conventional as well as alternative fuels. The sub-models will be validated and optimised against the data collected during the experimental part of the project. The identification and optimization of incombustor control techniques for minimizing these emissions, will be undertaken as well, with the aid of experimental trials in industrial-scale cement kilns and numerical simulations. Selection of the alternative fuels that is suitable for incineration in a cement kiln will be carried as well.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
19009 Raphina (Pikeermi)
SW7 2BX London