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Biosphere - Atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands across Europe.

Objective



Deposition of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a major cause of ecosystem change in Europe, with the magnitude of fluxes being intimately linked to climate, agricultural intensification, biomass productivity and plant community change. The current parametrizations are however still very uncertain, and require validation of the different model terms by both field and laboratory measurements. The aim of GRAMINAE is to investigate the dynamics of NH(3) ecosystem-atmosphere exchange processes and their disturbance in the context of the EC Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Initiative (TERI). Bearing in mind the goals of TERI phase 2, and the links of seasonality to NH3 fluxes, the approach will be to focus on NH(3) fluxes with cut grassland/meadow ecosystems in an Atlantic-Continental transect.

The specific objectives are:
1. to investigate the influence of European climate gradients on net NH(3) fluxes with grasslands considering the interactions with land management, using micrometeorological methods in relation to ecosystem functioning;
2. to quantify the component processes contributing to net NH3 fluxes and their interaction with climate and management using controlled laboratory experiments;
3. to apply novel bioassays and micrometeorological techniques in the field to quantify the integration of component fluxes to net NH(3) exchange at the canopy and landscape level;
4. to quantify the dynamics of NH(3) fluxes in relation to canopy architecture/ecosystem functioning, NH(3) pollution gradients and ecosystem control of atmospheric NH(3) concentrations;
5. to quantify the interactions of NH(3) fluxes with gas-to-particle conversion, noting effects on net atmospheric N budgets with ecosystems and aerosol formation;
6. to use the measurements to improve the functional understanding of NH3 fluxes with ecosystems and the establish more reliable model parameterizations of NH3 exchange.

The models will be applied to scenarios of land-use, climate and pollution change in relation to ecosystem sustainability. The quantification of ammonia fluxes between the atmosphere and plant communities is a key task required to underpin the EU negotiating position within the UNECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The Convention is currently working toward a new protocol to control European NOx and NH(3) emissions, and it is planned to base this on a comparison of N deposition to critical load exceedance. Sound estimates of ammonia inputs to European ecosystems are therefore essential to underpin this activity.

Coordinator

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL
Address
C/o Bush Estate
EH26 0QB Penicuik
United Kingdom

Participants (7)

ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI
Greece
Address
University Campus
54006 Thessaloniki
ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE OF THE NETHERLANDS
Netherlands
Address
Westerduinweg 3
Petten
Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrikulturchemie und Umwelthygiene
Switzerland
Address
155,Schwarzenburgstrasse
3097 Liebefeld-bern
FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Hungary
Address
42/44,Frankel Leo U. 42/44
1023 Budapest
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
France
Address
Route De Thiverval
78850 Thiverval-grignon
THE ROYAL VETERINARY AND AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
Denmark
Address
40,Thorvaldsensvej 40
1871 Frederisksberg
University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST)
United Kingdom
Address
Sackville Street
M60 1QD Manchester