Since the discovery of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (S.T.M.), many other Microscopes were developed to probe surfaces. All these microscopes are based on different interactions between tip and surfaces. If apparatus such as Atomic Force Microscope (A.F.M.) Allows the investigation of surfaces, giving information on frictional properties, topographic aspects for example, it would be interesting to further develop the Scanning Probe Microscope (S.P.M.) towards the Scanning Chemical Microscope (S C.M.). An effort of this kind is justified since now science becomes more and more interested in the nanomanipulation and the observation of chemical and physical phenomena at the macromolecular and atomic scales such as synthetic and natural polymers. Because of their non-conducting properties, Scanning Tunnelling Microscope can't be used to probe these surfaces. And if Atomic Force Microscope is more suitable for these kind of samples, it doesn't give any information on chemical nature or functionality of the molecular groups and atoms. To obtain chemical recognition we must put a specific interaction, such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction, between the tip and the substract. Therefore the subject proposed consist to modified tips, used in Atomic Force Microscopy, according to different synthetic strategies based on the use of Self Assembling Monolayers (SAMs), to obtain the chemical picture of the surface, and by the way to develop a new kind of apparatus: The Scanning Chemical Microscope. Preliminary work on the proposed subject has recently been highlighted in "Pour la Science", the French edition of the Scientific American: B. Gauthier-Manuel, L. Garnier et M. Doreau, "levitation" Pour la Science 213 p 12 (1995). Garnier was responsible for the particular experimental setup.