I propose to study the lekking behaviour of male Ruffs, Philomachus pugnax (Aves: Scolopacidae), and determine the long and short term fitness consequences of different male reproductive strategies. I will extend beyond the scope of sexual selection studies hitherto performed on lekking systems by also investigating the proximate mechanisms behind male lekking behaviours. This will enable me to put male behaviours into a life-history perspective, and make it possible to gain novel and exciting insights about the evolution of male reproductive strategies. The proposed project is the first aiming to combine sexual selection theory and life-history theory in studies of lekking species, which are ideally suited for determining the pay-off:s associated with different male strategies. While the project primarily involves basic research, the results generated will also be of great applied interest since they will pertain to male reproductive strategies in economically more important species as well.