The project will enable Dr Mark Bolton to join an existing research team in Portugal to provide expertise in ecological census techniques, data handling and statistical analysis. The research questions will focus on the changes in biodiversity in a variety of Portuguese habitats that result from current chances in agroforestry practices. Two agroforestry trends will be selected for analysis: the replacement of cork oak woodland with eucalyptus plantations in mountainous areas and the substitution of dry fruit orchards (e.g. almond, fig, olive) with irrigated citrus orchards, on the lowlands. Biodiversity will be assessed on three trophic levels: floral; primary level consumers (mainly invertebrates) and secondary Ievel consumers (avian species), and the use of bird communities as indicators of overall species diversity will be assessed for these habitats, in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons.