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A validated simulation support system for the optimal design of steel shaped can manufacturing processes (SCANMAP)


An extensive experimental programme of prototype manufacturing of 2D and 3D shaped containers needs to be carried out in conjunction with computational developments. The following prototype lines were set up and used in the validation process: - Pre-form manufacturing line - Mechanical shaping manufacturing - Equipment for rheoforming shaping - High Velocity Forming (HVF)/ explosive forming prototype line
The optimisation shell INVERSE is a general purpose code for solving a wide range of optimisation and inverse problems. It offers a set of optimisation algorithms and other tools, which are accessible through a flexible user interface implemented as a file interpreter. The shell can be connected to different simulation programmes that are capable of direct analyses of components and processes under consideration. Its applicability is not is not restricted to finite element simulation codes. In the SCANMAP project, the computational shell INVERSE has been applied to design aspects in can pre-form manufacture and shaping in conjunction with ELFEN finite element code. The capabilities of the shell have been enhanced to take into account multiple objective functions related to can strength and to optimise tool design parameters related to final can shape and volume. Status: A set of specific industrial cases has been solved to demonstrate applicability of the computational shell in the design of can shaping process.
The ultimate technical requirement of a shaped container is adequate performance under in-service loading. The performance of the developed shaped containers needs to be assessed under axial crush and panel testing. Axial crushing measures the resistance of the container to a vertical (axial) load, representative of stacking conditions, whilst panel testing involves quantifying the container's resistance to an internal vacuum loading, representing filling operations. Status: An extension of a simple computational model involving the residual stresses and strains remaining in the container after the completed forming process was integrated into the Elfen code. The thus developed computational model is now capable of predicting the axial crush load and panelling pressure whilst accurately reproducing the collapse geometry of the can. The model is also able to predict the effects of such factors as out-of-roundness, local dents, gauge variations and asymmetric loading on the crush and panel values. The model has been comprehensively validated by comparison with experimental tests.
Shape forming decision support system A prototype version of a decision support system for designing a shape forming operation and optimisation of the parameters involved within a graphically aided virtual environment is a primary result of Scanmap. Status: A set of specific industrial cases has been solved to demonstrate the applicability of the computational shell in the design of the can shaping process. Validated results for pre-form manufacture are showing an excellent correlation with experimental measurements. Simulations of the shaping processes in 3-D are capable of predicting areas of material failure which currently occur during manufacturing process.
The quality of the results of simulations significantly depends on an accurate specification of material parameters. For some shape forming operations, e.g. by expanding mechanical mandrel, embossing operations, etc., strain rate effects are not considered to be important and the results of quasi-static material tests may be adequate. However, for other operations, such as DWI pre-forming and HVF shape forming, strain rate effects are significant and consequently estimation of the material response under dynamic loading conditions will be necessary. The first requirement is the determination of the material's stress-strain response up to rupture. Given the presence of initial anisotropy due to processing, this necessitated testing in three different material orientations. To identify the strain rate dependent material properties, the split Hopkinson bar experimental test was used. Clear strain rate dependency was obtained; which was incorporated into material models used for simulations of the shaping processes
Computational methodology for the treatment in 3D of the welding processes based on the available Comet software for thermal-mechanical simulations using - A Thermo-visco-elastic-J2 visco-plastic model with an isotropic hardening saturation law - A Thermo-mechanical contact algorithm, capable of simulating the effects of the combination of the roller tools force and the heat transfer. Status: operative

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