The physics of simple quantum systems is presently the subject of fast and new developments in the field of quantum information. In the recent years, it has known an intense growing both on theoretical and experimental aspect. On the most conceptual point of view, it has been realised that some difficult problems such as the factoring of large integers can be solved more efficiently by using a quantum computer. On the other hand, in many different fields such as quantum optics, NMR or solid state physics technological advances make now possible the controlled quantum manipulations and entanglement of a few "qubits" made of single photons, atoms, ions, molecules or electrons. Quantum memories and quantum gates have already been realised.
These elementary tools are needed for trying to push quantum logic as far as possible in increasingly complex systems. It is however well known that it will be a difficult way. The essence of quantum logic: entanglement, is indeed a very fuzzy property, subjected to increasing decoherence rates as far as it involves an increasing number of qubits. Even if the dream of building a quantum computer proves elusive, the control of quantum information strikes at the heart of our fundamental understanding of quantum mechanics. The importance of the field covered by the school has been recognised by the EC through the "QUEST" program. This school should be an important element for increasing the unity of an emerging field involving people from very different communities using very often a different language for describing similar processes. One of the best way of achieving this goal certainly consists in training advanced doctoral and post-doctoral researchers by presenting them a series of tutorial lecture courses as well as seminars. This will be the aim of the proposed school.