As materials become more complex, qualitatively new forms of collective behaviour become possible that are called "Emergent Properties". Examples of such behaviour include magnetism, high-temperature superconductivity and the fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of the organizing principles that govern these new forms of behaviour emerging in matter is one of the cutting edge frontiers of condensed matter physics.
Astonishing progress has been made in this field during the past three years, including the discovery of a new Mosfet method to electronically dope insulators. With this new method, insulating carbon-60 crystals and cuprate antiferromagnets have been continuously transformed into high temperature superconductors. This period has also seen a dramatic growth of interest in the role that quantum phase transitions play in transforming material properties and out-of-the blue, a new 42K metallic superconductor has been discovered.