Countries, which are rather similar in their overall levels of technological and scientific development will intensify the intra-industry relations, but not necessarily their pattern of inter-industry specialization. The policies of scientific and technological cooperation with CC and NIS will be to a large extent determined by those factors. Future employment, qualification of labour, economic structure in donors and recipient countries of direct investment and assistance depend on cooperation an the advanced fields of sciences and/or in organization, marketing, financial spheres where CC and NIS have weak experience.
This research proposal brings together the research groups of different disciplines and different countries: Austria, France, Poland, Russian and United kingdom. The research proposal presents joint projects within the INCO - COPERNICUS programma in economic and social sciences. It focuses on the complex interaction between transition, technology diffusion , institutional transformation and employment within an increasingly open environment in CC and Russia.
Three main research directions are proposed :
1. National system of research and innovation, and its transformation during the transition to an open market economy and to knowledge based society of countries and regions with combined effects of social and technological change. The national differences reflect previous economic histories, legal forms and various abilities for creating the mechanisms of virtual technical and human development. The level and direction of investment, the utilization of a skilled labour force, the possibility to adapt regulation mechanisms (legal and fiscal) determine the pattern of the transformation process. It is important to compare the relative advantage of the institutional frameworks in EU countries and new ones in CC and Russia.
2. This second direction of research focuses more specifically on the RDT employment synergy between research centers and new technology based firms in the process of scientific discoveries and applications. The sectoral shift away from manufacturing in CC towards services is accompanied by an expansion of small and medium firms, and often by diffusion of high technology equipment. New firms need skilled labour and recruit researchers and engineers, creating the conditions of part time employment in both enterprise and academic centers. Such changes may be favourable for new ways of knowledge production. The new formulations of science and technology long- term policies has to be seen from such ventures, even if the actual situation and major problems of science development may arise from financial constraints.
3. Finally, there is the question of competition and of integration into Europe. Economic theory suggests that technological and industrial specialization increases as countries which have attained different levels of economic development liberalize their economic and scientific relationships which each other.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
90 131 Lódz