The main objectives are as follows :
* To study an optimal management of each type of hill reservoirs. The use of the supplement of water resource by users raises both technical and social questions such as, what is the duration of life of a reservoir (siltation) ? or what are the possible social organization of the users ?
* To define an optimal land use planning upstream and downstream the artificial lake. To protect the reservoir, soil conservation works have to be planed on the slopes of the watershed. The development of lands close to the lake downstream (gravity irrigation) or on slopes (pumping requires adequate management. Fish breeding is a possibility to valorize the new water resource, just as the tourist exploitation of some sites.
To assess the impact of one or several lakes on the environment. The hill reservoir is considered as an artificial structure of little size with very few impacts on the environment. This postulate has often occulted researches on real impacts and on ecosystems modifications.
The work carried out in this project should provide guidance for small and medium hydraulic works in soil and water conservation in semi-arid hill areas. It should identify natural and human constraints to the development of hill reservoirs and provide tools for assistance to decision makers at regional and national levels. It should also highlight the importance of small catchment areas in water resources mobilization particularly during dry periods. Starting from the Tunisian example, Hydromed will deepen the reflection on projects of small and medium hydraulic systems and transfer it to the totality of the semi-arid Mediterranean periphery.
Hydromed contains four work packages, a training program and coordination activities. The four work package are :
* Existent works synthesis in each country. This work package aims to establish the state of the art. It includes a bibliographical review, the analysis and synthesis of realizations and projects, the identification of constraints and the choice of pilot sites for relevant experimentation.
* Water - soil - environment. This work package includes the study of process on pilot sites and the researching of indicators on the functioning of watersheds and hill reservoirs.
* Agricultural economy - social management of the water and the erosion. The following activities are developed : analysis of the new economic practices introduced in traditional productions systems; role of the different economic actors in designing, realizing and managing hill reservoirs and watershed works.
* Sustainability of the hill reservoir and its integration in the durable development of marginal regions. This work package will use data and models crossing from the three preceding packages.
* Interactive models will be developed : physical resources - human resources - impacts on the environment.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
221 00 Lund