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Wind farms in hostile terrain


The full exploitation of the wind power potential of the
EU will require the use of complex, high wind speed and
ice prone sites. At present there are associated with
higher risks than more conventional sites. This project
involves a detailed investigation of the meteorology as
well as the behaviour of a wide range of machines of
different configurations at two hostile sites. The
objective is to:
- Understand, and hence reduce, the risks associated
with the use of wind farm sites in very hostile
- Provide a critical appraisal of present design
procedures used for hostile environments, and to refine
the design classification of wind turbines for such
- Disseminate the results to wind turbine manufacturers,
wind farm developers, Classification Societies and
Standards bodies.
Technical Approach
Measurements will be made at two wind farm sites:
Windy Standard, Scotland has has an annual mean wind
speed in excess of 8.5m/s a 50 year extreme gust of
70m/s and is at an altitude of 680m. National Wind Power
(NWP) are developing a wind farm at the site of 36 600kW
wind turbines to be supplied by Nordtank.
Acqua Spruzza, Italy has been set up by ENEL with support
from the CEC. The site is located on the Apennines at an
average altitude of 1360m and experiences high levels of
turbulence and considerable snowfall and icing throughout
the winter months. The test station hosts eight medium
size wind turbines: two WEST Medit 320kW, two Riva
Calzoni M30 200kW, two WEG MS3 300kW and two Windane 34
400kW machines.
In addition to the detailed monitoring of the wind
conditions and ice accretion at the two sites,
performance and loading data will be recorded from a
Nordtank 600kW machine at Windy Standard and Riva Calzoni
M30 and WEST Medit I machines at Acqua Spruzza. Analysis
of the measured data will focus on an investigation of
the correlation of measured loads with extreme climatic
conditions. Computer modelling of the wind flow and
machine loads will also be undertaken and compared with
the measurements.
Expected Achievements and Exploitation
This project will provide the first set of results from
wind farms operating in severe wind and ice condition.
The results will be fed directly to manufacturers to
enable them to improve their machine designs, and to
Standards bodies and Classification Societies to improve
the design rules.
The expected achievements of this project will include:
- A better understanding of the wind speed and other
meteorological quantities on hostile wind farm sites;
- An improved appreciation of the implications of
hostile conditions on wind turbine behaviour;
- Recommendations for changes to current design rules
and design practice for machines sited on hostile sites.


Saint Vincent Works, Silverthorne Lane
BS2 0QD Bristol
United Kingdom

Participants (4)

Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica SpA (ENEL)
Via Alessandro Volta 1
20093 Cologno Monzese
Germanischer Lloyd AG
32,Vorsetzen 32
20459 Hamburg
National Wind Power Ltd
United Kingdom
Furlong Road
SL8 5AJ Bourne End - Buckinghamshire
8444 Balle