To study the Diesel Fuel composition parameters which influence particulate emissions and to define refining ways allowing the obtention of clean Diesel fuels.
The work program includes three phases: Diesel fuel preparation, Diesel fuel combustion in different Diesel engines and a pressurized burner, synthesis of the results in order to control the main fuel parameters in relation with particulate emissions.
1) The Diesel fuel preparation phase includes the following steps:
(i) Selection of three reference fuels with different sulphur contents (2 straight-run fuels, 1 hydrocracking fuel).
(ii) Hydrodesulphurizing down to 0,05% S the High Sulphur Content fuel (HSC) in order to quantify the effect of sulphur.
(iii) Hydrotreatment of HSC fuel at two severity levels, to obtain two different fuel compositions.
(iv) Extraction from a LCO (Light Cycle Oil) of di- and tri-aromatic compounds, hydrogenation of these species in di- and tri-naphtenes respectively and addition of each chemical family, at two different concentration, in one of the preceding hydrotreated fuel. This procedure will allow to quantify the contribution of each hydrocarbon chemical family in particulate emissions.
(v) Preparation of industrial Diesel fuels by mixing HSC with LCO and then hydrotreating at several severity levels to match different sulphur and aromatic contents and thus to check the conclusions of the previous steps. Finally, seventeen fuels will be prepared in the first phase of the program.
2) The second phase includes two steps :
(i) Testing on three representative Diesel engine types (pre-chamber light engine, direct injection light duty engine, direct injection heavy duty engine). For light duty engines tests will be run both in steady state and in transient conditions according to the standard cycles (ECE 15, EUDC). The heavy duty engine will be tested in steady state conditions according to the ECE cycle.
(ii) Testing in a pressurized reactor fitted with a burner in order to study the influence of the only fuel parameters with regard to particulate emissions, independently of the engine parameters. During these tests, gaseous pollutants and particulate emissions will be measured. The particulate analysis will include: soluble fraction, polynucleohydrocarbons (PAH), sulphates.
3) The third phase of the program consists in gathering and synthesising the emission data in order to provide guidelines to the refining industry of clean Diesel fuels.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
2600 JA Delft