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Key coastal processes in the mesotrophic Skagerrak and the oligotrophic Northern Aegean : a comparative study

Objective


MPA-Methodology: The MPA-Methodology developed in the course of the project comprises a continuous set of procedures, methods and tools for - the design of production modules according to the particular industry’s objectives, modular production architectures and the derivation of scalable production systems,- the evaluation of alternative modular system solutions considering standardisation, flexibility and adaptability along the production system life-cycle, - strategies for migration from plant architectures of today to modular plant architectures of tomorrow. The MPA-Methodology adapts the concept of modular product platforms known from automobile design to the design of production systems. In order to increase production system flexibility and to extend its lifecycle, the system is decomposed into modules and platforms. While modules encapsulate the system constituents that are object to frequent changes within the system’s lifecycle (i.e. product/ volume-specific constituents), platforms include the rather static parts of the system (i.e. location-specific constituents). This way, future changes of relevant parameters can be answered by exchanging or adapting dedicated modules.

The methodology systematically supports the modular production engineering in four phases: analysis, design, evaluation and operation. At first, relevant change drivers for production systems and company-specific objectives are analysed. Based on that, production modules, platforms and reference architectures are generated. Therefore, change driver impacts and relevant system relations are represented in a dedicated model, the Production Structure Matrix (PSM). Systematic generation of alternative modularisation concepts is supported and the methodology provides a solution for the evaluation of these concepts in order to identify an appropriate degree of modularity as well as the right balance between specialisation and flexibility utilising scenario-based evaluation techniques.

Finally, the method is complemented by a concept continuous improvement of MPA as well as a guideline that provides an approved migration strategies towards MPA. The method has successfully proven its practical applicability in multiple real-case production modularisation projects carried out by involved industrial partners in the course of the project. Its application has led to considerable savings in terms of investment, running cost, planning cost and time-to-job one. MPA-Software Tool: The MPA-Software tool has been developed in order to provide an advanced support to the (re-) designer and user of modular production systems. The developed MPA-Software-Tool integrates existing successful ideas and new, innovative approaches to create a sophisticated support for the design of factories: The Standard Facilities Library (a central Object Oriented Data Base) stores all the information related with the plant for both the virtual environment and the emulation system. All relevant data, modularization and standardization information concerning the various elements (resources, structures, processes) are stored here. The database serves as an integrated interface for the various tool and methodology modules: the VRE and the Control and Emulation System.

The Virtual Reality Environment (VRE) is an high fidelity 3D environment where the user can design a new, modular production site or modify an existing one in a simple and user-friendly environment. The advanced agent-based manufacturing control and emulation system is linked to the VR-environment and thus enables to consider dynamic aspects within the system design or plant engineering process. The manufacturing control is based on the most recently developed technology in multi-agent manufacturing control systems and holonic manufacturing systems, thus reflecting the best and latest technology available. MPA-Resource Box: The MPA-Resource Box represents the results of the application of MPA-methodology and MPA-Software-tool at participating industrial partners. Factory Level: Modular factory building and configuration tool-kit (GIP, cf. result no. 478).Segment Level: Production Modules and modular Reference Architecture at machines manufacturer (Picanol, N.V., cf. result no. 793).Line Level: - Factory modules at automotive supplier (Behr Lorraine SARL, cf. result no. 649);- Design and control of modular production architecture (Robert Bosch Espana Fabrica Treto, cf. result no. 477);- Requirements and solutions for Modular Plant Architectures and elaboration of a factory configuration tool-kit (Becker GmbH, cf. result no. 1018).Workstation Level: Modular part feeding system for flexible assembly systems (Robert Bosch GmbH, cf. result no. 672.)
This project focuses on investigation and modelling of key processes that affect flow and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In particular, we aim to study how processes change over scales from microns to tens of metres, and to compare processes under two contrasting situations, stratified and mixed water masses. By comparing the Skagerrak with the NE Aegean, we will be able to study differences in functioning between a mesotrophic and an oligotrophic system. There are important differences in sedimentological and geochemistry setting such as higher content of calcareous material in the N. Aegean which are expected to lead to different rates and processes of nutrient recycling, and erosion, transport, deposition, and accumulation of particulate matter. Nutrient regimes are very different and the Skagerrak is relatively turbid with high light attenuation whereas the N. Aegean has clearer water with extremely low attenuation. It is thus likely that not only will primary production processes be different but behavioural differences in zooplankton e.g. predator avoidance, vertical migration, grazing etc. Biological coagulation (packaging) processes are likely to be very different between the two areas and this is expected to have a major influence on flux rates. The benthic systems differ in that biomass and abundances are higher in the Skagerrak but species diversity is higher in the N. Aegean. Thus the processes and rates of mineralisation and material burial will vary.

The project is formed around a set of hypotheses defined for each of the key processes identified. The work will be aimed not at establishing mass balances by direct measurement, but will instead focus on the characterisation and modelling of the key processes occurring.

Novel aspects include use of high frequency samplers to make in situ measurements of the microstructure, which can considerably improve our understanding of the vertical turbulent transport and of the velocity fluctuations across frontal areas to gain better insight into local biological and physical processes. A state of the art benthic lander will be used to measure respiration and recycling rates of carbon and nutrient elements in sediments in-situ. Large temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface turbulence is expected, which will be investigated on the basis of measurements and l-D modelling.

Processes in the organic part of the benthic nitrogen cycle are of major interest as these processes, their regulation and quantitative importance, to a large degree determines the nitrogen sources that eventually will escape to the overlying water. Thus, knowledge on factors regulating processes of organic nitrogen turnover is necessary in the understanding of mechanisms regulating the internal loading. Further, this knowledge is indispensable in the construction of predictive models.

The main deliverable from the project will be a much sounder understanding of key processes affecting nutrient cycling, which in turn will lead to better management of nutrient discharges in coastal waters. The models produced will greatly aid in making predictions and these will be transportable to other areas and therefore, be of relevance in a wider European context.
The field and laboratory work of the project will be conducted during joint cruises and workshops. In all there are 36 scientists represented from 6 European countries and 11 institutions. In addition there will be a minimum of 8 Ph.D. students being trained within the project.

Keywords: Nutrients Fluxes, Mesotrophic, Oligotrophic, Skagerrak, NE Aegean

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

UNIVERSITY OF OSLO
Address
Moltke Moes Vei 32
0316 Oslo
Norway

Participants (7)

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Italy
Address
1,Via E. Fermi 1
21020 Barasso
Danish Institute of Fisheries Research
Denmark
Address
Charlottenlund Castle
2920 Charlottenlund
GOETEBORG UNIVERSITY
Sweden
Address
Kemivagen 10
412 96 Goeteborg
ISW Institut Wassermesstechnik GbR.
Germany
Address
5,Lenzer Strasse
17213 Petersdorf
NATIONAL CENTRE FOR MARINE RESEARCH
Greece
Address
Aghios Kosmas, Hellinikon
16604 Athens
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE - MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY
Denmark
Address
399,Frederiksborgvej 399
4000 Roskilde
NERC Centre of Coastal and Marine Sciences
United Kingdom
Address
Prospect Place West Hoe
PL1 3DH Plymouth