ESNI with its scientific board with members from 15 countries represents a European educational framework in neuroimmunology. Part of its program is yearly teaching course for young researchers in basic and clinical neuroimmunologywhere they meet top scientists/clinicians as speakers. The 2nd ESNI course will take place in Paris, June 27-30, 2001 with 300 participants and 40 speakers and chairmen. Main topics will be protective versus detrimental autoimmunity, neuroimmune interplay, immmunotherapy, and stem cells and stem-cell therapy. The course represents a mix of clinical and basic/experimental neuroimmunology, thus promoting clinical relevance of basic research as well as transferring experimental results to improve treatment and diagnosis for patients withneuroimmunological disease. It should stimulate and improve research quality and provide additional value by increasing European co-operation in the field.