A fourth advanced course in vaccinology, directly related to priority objectives of Key Action 2 'Control of Infectious Diseases', aiming at increasing the number of scientists able to make decisions, based on a broad knowledge in vaccinology, regarding critical issues in
(1) vaccine development%(2) selection of appropriate vaccination strategies
(3) integration of new vaccines into public health programmes,
(4) vaccination safety
(5) development of therapeutic vaccines. The program (see attached document) will cover: Overview of the challenges of vaccination, immunological basis of vaccine efficacy, clinical evaluation of vaccines, immunisation in neonates, elderly and immunocompromised, adverse effects of vaccination (real or perceived), safe vaccine delivery, vaccination strategies and their economic impact, factors to be considered for the introduction of new vaccines into vaccination programs, challenges for future vaccines (including malaria, TB and HIV), and development of therapeutic vaccination. The sessions will be of highly interactive nature. The course will be held in Nancy (F) (26 May 6 June 2003).