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CHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

Objective


Chlorobiphenyls (CB) are a class of 209 discrete chemical compounds in which between 1 and 10 chlorine atoms are attached to the biphenyl nucleus. Routine determination of every CB in each sample to be analysed would be prohibitive on a cost of time basis, thus a selection of congeners to be determined was made on the basis of their presence in industrial mixtures, occurrence in a vast number of environmental samples and toxicity. The following CBs were thus chosen: 28, 52, 101, 118, 153 and 180 for certification in a sewage sludge reference material (CRM). Accurate determinations are required for: checking of maximum allowable concentration (MAC values) in raw products and food; identification of pollution sources and for the detection of time trends in environmental pollution.

Because of the difficulty of determining CB congeners, the project started by a study of the various individual steps of the procedure of determination (eg quantification, identification, gas chromatography (GC) separation and GC injection, clean up, concentration and extraction) used by each of the participants. In consecutive collaborative tests these procedures were studied and the sources of error were detected and consequently eliminated. Analytical feasibility studies were conducted with a variety of materials before the contents of sewage sludge was certified.
Chlorobiphenyls (cb's) are a class of 209 discrete chemical compounds in which between one to ten chlorine atoms are attached to the biphenyl nucleus.
The risk to the environment and man of the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (transformer fluids and fluids for hydraulic systems, paper and ink industry, etc.) has for long been underestimated. Large quantities of pcb-mixtures have been produced and are still in use. However, toxicological studies on individual chlorinated biphenyls (cb's) indicate that these compounds are toxic and have both carcinogenic and teratogenic properties in animals.
Since a routine determination of approaching this number of components in each sample to be analysed would be prohibitive on a cost of time basis, a selection of congeners to be determined was made on the basis of their presence in industrial mixtures, occurrence in a vast number of environmental samples and toxicity of the particular congeners; these considerations have also led to legislation in some Member States.
The following cb's (IUPAC-numbers) were thus chosen: 28, 52, 101, 118, 153 and 180 for certification in a sewage sludge RM.
Accurate determinations are required for : checking of MAC-values (MAC = maximum allowable concentration) in raw products and food; identification of pollution sources and for the detection of time trends in environmental pollution.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment and Fisheries Department
Address
Victoria Road
AB11 9DB Aberdeen
United Kingdom

Participants (15)

CETS
Spain
Address
Calle De L'inst. Quim. De Sarria S/n
08017 Barcelona
Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo
Spain
Address
18-26,Jordi Girona
08034 Barcelona
Direccao-Geral da Qualidade do Ambiente (DGQA)
Portugal
Address
Av. Almirante Gago Coutinho, 30 - 2 Piso
1000 Lisboa
European Communities - Commission of the European Communities - Joint Research Centre (JRC)
Italy
Address
Via E. Fermi 1
21020 Ispra
Institute of Marine Research
Norway
Address
2,Nordensparken
5024 Bergen
Laboratoire Municipal de la Ville de Rouen
France
Address
29 Rue Bourg-l'abbé
76000 Rouen
Milchwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Versuchsanstalt Kempten
Germany
Address
Hirnbeinstraße 10
87435 Kempten
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF ITALY
Italy
Address
Unical-polifunzionale
87036 Rende
National Food Agency
Denmark
Address
19,Morkhoj Bygade
2860 Soeborg
National Swedish Env. Prot. Board
Sweden
Address

17125 Solna
Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek
Netherlands
Address
1,Haringkadetbus
1976 CP Ijmuiden
Rikilt
Netherlands
Address
45,Bornsesteeg
6700 AE Wageningen
Universität Ulm
Germany
Address
Oberer Eselberg 26
89081 Ulm
VITO - Vlaamse Inst. voor Technologisch Onderzoek
Belgium
Address
200,Boeretang
2400 Mol
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam - IVM
Netherlands
Address
1115,De Boelelaan
1081 HV Amsterdam