The clay materials used in the brick industries are currently monitored to avoid air and ground water pollution. Some areas suffer from a severe pollution by emission of fluoride into the atmosphere and its subsequent transport into the ground water as clay may contain 200 to 1200 ug/g of F. As an example, the brick and ceramic industry is responsible for 50% of the total F emission in The Netherlands. The emissions are calculated from the difference in the F content of clay and the final product (brick). Chloride is responsible for corrosion and has to be determined to assess this risk. Problems have been observed during baking of clay. In some cases, raw materials are rejected if the Cl and F contents are too high which cause an economic concern. As a consequence, many European countries have implemented legislations for the maximum authorised values in gaseous emission of F and Cl from brick industries, which strongly stresses the need for the control of the quality of measurements and therefore for the production of reference materials.
Certification to be concluded by the end of 1992 (candidate CRM 461)
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
20097 San Donato Milanese
6904 AE De Steeg