In recent years, the economical importance of special animal fibres increased. This is especially true for high-quality fibres, particularly cashmere. Consequently, the demand of such high-quality animal fibres is also increasing. Textile manufactures and enterprises acting for industrial service, like importers, often have a problem with efficient quality-control of shipments of cashmere since they often do not consist of pure raw material but are blended with low-quality animal fibres, especially with lambswools. Although several attempts have been made to establish quality-assuring procedures for this problem, there does not exist a reliable method for the distinction between cashmere and wool fibres till today. However, there is a significant interest by the affected enterprises to assure the quality of their goods in order to grant a product security for the European market. Consequently, research is strongly needed in order to overcome these problems of testing and measurement for the quality assurance of the European customer. It is the object of this project to establish a simple and trusty method for the differentiation of cashmere and common wool fibres and to characterize clearly these raw materials. In order to determine a suitable procedure to establish this aim, a screening of different microscopical, other physical and chemical methods should be made. Such a procedure should be simple, not costly and safe in order to develop a quality standard for the relevant animal fibres and to develop a trading safety for the European market.