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Gender and Citizenship: Social Exclusion and Social Integration in European Welfare States


We propose a series of five seminars for the period 1996-1998 under the theme Gender and Citisenship: Social Integration and Social Exclusion in European Welfare States. We want a) to produce new knowledge about gender as a concept and a variable for analysis in the work on social citizenship by developing a comprehensive approach that focuses on the interplay between social and political dimensions of citizenship. b) to achieve this objective, a state-of-the art summary combining existing approaches to integrate gender in comparative work on social citizenship and welfare regimes will be produced. And more concretely, we want c) to produce a compilation of national case studies that illustrate the multidimensional features of women's social exclusion and their multiple forms of participation in work and politics. Finally, we want d) to develop a new conceptual framework for the comparative study of citizenship in European welfare states by gendering notions of rights, obligations, participation and identities. The basic hypothesis in this proposal is that a framework for women's citizenship involves extending the conceptual and empirical terrain in current citizenship theorizing. Exclusion and integration have different meanings, contexts and dynamics for women and men. This has implications for developing a framework for women's citizenship: Women have been excluded from democratic citizenship and their social citizenship has been defined primarily by their roles as mothers and wives, and only to a smaller degree by their roles as workers. Women rely on different sources of income, provided by either the family/ network/voluntary the labour market, the state or fathers/husbands (Lewis ed.l993): Women's social exclusion is therefore multidimensional Women's citizenship is shaped by a) the extent to which they are as wives and mothers dependent on the labour market/state benefits/husbands, b) the extent to which they are as individuals dependent on labour market/ husbands/state benefits.
Today the institutions of welfare states and of democracy are in transition, and gender is a central aspect. On the level of policies one guiding hypothesis is that policies that increase public responsibility for caringwork, through universal benefits, services and rights for mothers and carers are favourable toward a social integration of women. On the level of democracy, the guiding hypothesis is that women's political citizenship has today become a crucial factor determining women's social rights. Since most European welfare states promote women's labour market participation, one question is who will care for children and the elderly in the post-industrial European wellfare states. The other is whether women will be democratic "agents" or "objects" in public policies to restructure welfare and citizenship in the post industrial welfare states.
We have scheduled 5 seminars during the three year period with different themes: 1) The new forms of social integration and social exclusion and new dilemmas connected with women's double roles as "working mothers". The multidimensional features of women's exclusion is analysed on the basis of national cases from different European welfare states. Lone mothers as a test case for women's double roles making visible the mixed sources of income (cash and kind) form the labour market, the state, the family network/voluntary sector. 2) The causes of social exclusion and social integration - a discussion of different theoretical approaches to explain gender differences in social rights and political participation in comparative studies of citizenship and welfare regimes: Problems and dilemmas in engendering citizenship. 3) Pub]ic policies toward social exclusion and social integration. What difference does politics makepotentialities and barriers from the perspective of women. National cases that illuminate how policies have both enabled women as workers and mothers, and contributed toward women's social exclusion. 4) The dynamic inter-action of social and political citizenship - the different roles of women and men as social actors in the trade union movement, social movements and political parties. To what extent have women as social actors influenced policies? Cases that demonstrate both conflicts and alliances around equality policies, abortion rights, labour market and social policies. 5) The transition of gender, welfare state and democracy. The potentials and problems for women as social and political actors on a European Community level. Casestudies illustrating women's priorities

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9220 Aalborg

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Participants (10)