ADONIS Analysis and Development Of New Insight into Substitution of short car trips by cycling and walking
The overall objectives of Project ADONIS were: I. To present a catalogue of best practices for promoting cycling and walking. II. To provide new knowledge regarding behavioural factors affecting modal choice for short trips in cities III. To increase cyclists and pedestrian safety through the identification of important human accident factors IV. To provide a comprehensive overview with general recommendations to promote walking and cycling for urban decision-makers within the EU. Amsterdam, Barcelona, Copenhagen (study I-III) and Brussels (study I) were used as demonstration sites. Results: I. A catalogue of best practices was compiled to promote cycling and walking, taking into account attractiveness, stimulation of cycling and walking, cost effectiveness and safety aspects. The catalogue with detailed descriptions of 101 selected measures is intended for local authorities who are responsible for the construction or improvement of traffic facilities, and for those who wish to influence the use of these facilities. 2. In each of the three demonstration sites a representative group of licence holders travelling regularly between 1-5 km took part in the survey. The results showed that habit contributed most to the prediction of walking, cycling and driving followed by perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and attitudes. The most important reason for walking in all three cities was distance, the acceptable length appeared to be around 1 km. In general, most people were very positive about walking. Greater discrepancy was found with regard to cycling. People from Barcelona, with little or no experience of cycling were very negative about this mode, mostly caused by lack of safety. In contrast, people from Amsterdam and Copenhagen were very positive and the committed cyclists would use it in most circumstances. The rate of driving in the three cities was fairly similar. The main factor, which appeared to encourage the use of the car, was comfort. Furthermore, the group labelled “drivers” were also more likely than the “walkers” and the “cyclists” to believe that driving was relaxing, that it increased their sense of freedom and that it would not be time consuming. 3. In each of the three demonstration sites qualitative interviews were carried out with people who had been involved in a cyclist or pedestrian accident. The results showed that the road users who were interviewed, had not, after the accident reduced their cycling and walking although more than half of them felt less safe and had become more careful. In general, most of the road users admitted taking many risks even if this applied more to the car drivers than to the pedestrians and cyclists. Car drivers were considered to drive too fast, and not stop for other road users. Taxi drivers were considered a problem in all three cities. 4. Based on the above results, recommendations were set up in a concluding report: To encourage walking: Ensure that different amenities can easily be reached by foot. Provide and maintain adequate lighting in public areas. Improve home delivery services. Introduce traffic calming in areas with mixed traffic and increase the number of car-free areas. To encourage cycling: Develop a road infrastructure which gives higher priority to cyclists. Promote cycling as a convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transport. Provide bicycles at work place and city bicycles free of charge. Introduce “call-a-car” schemes. Introduce new types of cycle racks and storages and bicycle registration programs.. To discourage driving: Give higher priority to cycling and walking. Increase the number of parking places for bicycles and decrease the number of parking places for cars. Make people more aware of their own contribution towards the creation of a sustainable society; and use the media to increase the status of walking and cycling. To increase cyclist and pedestrian safety: Introduce parking restrictions near crossroads and enforce parking restriction on pavement. Introduce light signals with green arrows for turning cars and separate cyclist signals and stop use of flashing lights. Separate road users through the use of specially painted bicycle lanes or bicycle lanes and carriageway at different levels. Control speeds by means of humps, chicanes and enforcement. Move bus stops to intersections with high visibility and introduce more rules for tramways. Maintain the road surface and increase the use of bicycle lamps and reflective items.