Affordable and Adaptable Public Buildings through Energy Efficient Retrofitting
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Grant agreement ID: 609060
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FUNDACION TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION
A smart retrofitting kit aims for Near Zero Energy Buildings
Grant agreement ID: 609060
1 September 2013
28 February 2018
€ 10 259 963,05
€ 6 500 000
FUNDACION TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION
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Final Report Summary - A2PBEER (Affordable and Adaptable Public Buildings through Energy Efficient Retrofitting)
A2PBEER, as acronym for nearly Affordable and Adaptable Public Buildings through Energy Efficient Retrofitting, is a research project which has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme, under Grant Agreement No. 609060, running from 2013 to 2018 and involving 21 partners from 11 different countries.
The European Union is committed to drastically cut its domestic greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels (COM 2011/ 112), being the building sector one of the key sectors , this can only be achieved if the energy consumption of both the existing building stock and new buildings is reduced Due to the very long lifespans of buildings and retrofits there is an urgency of implementing ambitious and immediate measures, especially in non-residential buildings , since their consumption is 50% higher than the residential sector.
In this sense, A2PBEER Project has demonstrated that it is possible to reduce in more than 30% current building energy use and reach current Nearly Zero Energy Buildings requirements in the existing public buildings through affordable and adaptable new technologies. This objective has been achieved by the development, implementation and evaluation of different ret
(1) different Kits of retrofitting solutions, comprised by either market available solutions or the technologies deployed within A2PBEER project. high performance envelope retrofitting”, based on an external and internal super-insulated (VIP–Vacuum Insulated Panels) façade retrofit and smart windows, “smart lighting systems” combining LED and natural light, and the “Smart Dual Thermal Substation”, a new approach to district heating based in smart grid functionality and integrating heating and cooling
(2) Through the application of the systemic and innovative retrofitting methodology for Public Buildings and NZEB district deployed within the project and
(3) And the evaluation of the energy performance of the buildings through dynamic monitoring after the implementation of the retrofitting solutions in three real demo-sites located in different climates and with different uses: One of the buildings being an office building within the educational complex of the University of the Basque Country in Bilbao, Spain, the second a cafeteria building in an educational complex that includes a student’s residence in Ankara, Turkey and a technological museum with its workshops in Malmö, Sweden.
Moreover, the replicability of A2PBEER results is further validated through three complementary virtual projects covering additional climatic areas and end-uses: a hospital in San Martin (Genoa, Italy), a library in Oslo (Norway) and an office building located in in the city centre of Zagreb (Croatia), and the transferability to the social housing sector it is also assessed.
A comprehensive “Train the Trainer” and an innovative market approach allows results to be transferred to all key players of the value chain, with special focus on SMEs. The project results have been widely disseminated throughout Europe, to engage with identified stakeholders.
A2PBEER has produced the A2PBEER Retrofitting App, a web application for quick energy calculations which is a guide with a toolbox which is linked to a financial calculation tool. The App user is led through each step off the retrofitting planning process.
An Exploitation Plan of the A2PBEER Project Results has been elaborated according to the final accomplishment of the project.
Project Context and Objectives:
Buildings consume about 40% of total final energy requirements in Europe. In the context of all the end-use sectors, buildings represent the largest sector, followed by transport with 33%. To achieve an energy-efficient world, governments, businesses and individuals in their private and professional lives must transform the building sector, which today accounts for 40% of the world's energy use. A multitude of actions are necessary to aggressively reduce energy consumption in new and existing buildings. Necessary changes cannot and will not come through market forces alone.
The percentage of non-residential buildings m2 in Europe is 25% of the building stock. Although this percentage is lower than for residential buildings, energy consumption is very high because in absolute value the energy consumption per m2 of non-residential buildings is, in general, much higher than for the residential sector.
If the built area of residential buildings is three times the area of non-residential buildings, in absolute value its energy consumption represents only twice the value corresponding to residential buildings, which displays that the energy consumption per square meter of non-residential buildings is much higher. More specifically, the energy consumption of non-residential buildings is 50% higher than residential buildings.
Therefore, in order to improve the energy efficiency in Europe and particularly in the non-residential buildings (construction sector) is essential to tackle the public buildings sector.
In this context, A2PBEER aimed to demonstrate that is feasible to reach current Nearly Zero Energy Buildings requirements in the existing public buildings through affordable and adaptable new technologies, through the development, demonstration and evaluation of:
• Different KITs of technological solutions
• Systemic and innovative retrofitting methodology for Public Buildings and NZEB district, and
• Demonstrated in 3 real District and 3 virtual demo-sites through evaluation of energy performance by monitoring or thermal simulations before and after being retrofitted.
The expected impacts were:
• 50% of buildings energy use cuts in comparison to pre-intervention consumption.
• 7 years payback periods
• Demonstration of NZEB retrofitting in public buildings prioritizing intervention in the poorest behaving buildings.
• Replicability of the methodology and solution KITS in different European climates and building uses
• Public sector leading and leavering the retrofitting market by the creation of a new generation of skilled professionals and SMEs in the construction sector.
The relevance of the District scale and a systemic approach
Although the advantages of the district retrofitting processes oriented to energy efficiency are clear and even if they are being pushed by regional, national and European authorities, the typical approach is tackling it building by building as completely disconnected elements, without taking advantage of the synergies of the district scale approach. At the same time, the lack of systemic approaches and the adoption of classical solutions are limiting the potential achievements in terms of energy savings. This is due to the lack of a systemic methodology to guide the designers in this process.
A2PBEER project has developed a systemic methodology for energy efficient oriented building retrofitting in Public District.
As support for the deployment of this methodology, new building and district energy oriented solution have been developed. These solutions have been achieved through the integration of already existing technologies, focusing on the development of affordable and adaptable kits, which have increased the energy efficiency of classical solutions. The capability of adapting kits to the specificity of each project, allowed achieving the optimal balance between energy performance and economical cost.
The validity of the methodology and the developed kits has been demonstrated through their implementation and execution in three Public Districts, covering the main climatic areas in Europe (continental, oceanic and Mediterranean), different district types and different Public building uses. Additionally, the replicability of the A2PBEER results have been validated through three complementary virtual projects covering the three main climatic areas in Europe and 3 different Public building types as well as their transferability to Social housing.
A set of technologies were identified for its great potential to improve the energy efficiency of Public buildings and through a technological development they were available in real operating environments. These technologies were developed into three configurable solution kits, so that each building could implement the energy efficient technologies under a configurable criteria fitted to the building/district characteristics (use, schedule, constructive solutions,) and climatic conditions.
The technical and economic feasibility of the new retrofitting methodology and the new technologies has been demonstrated in three real public demo districts and its replicability has been additionally validated in three virtual Public demo districts in different climatic zones. Also, the transferability to social housing has been analysed
The solutions that were selected for the A2PBEER demo sites:
• University district in Leioa (Spain): (1) High performance retrofitting envelope (Outdoor façade and window) and (2) Smart lighting system.
• Educational complex in Ankara (Turkey): (1) Smart Dual Thermal Networks and (2) the sorption system and Smart Dual Thermal Networks
• Technological Museum in Malmö: (1) High performance retrofitting envelope (Indoor and outdoor façade and window) and (2) Smart lighting system
(further details in “Figure 1” Technologies developed in three demo buildings” in the figures and tables PDF)
Overall, A2PBEER has demonstrated that
• is technically viable and affordable to reduce in more than 30% current energy use of existing public buildings
• The use of innovative retroffiting systems and a systemic approach will help to reach these targets with payback periods around 13 years depending on the solution implemented, climate and previous conditions of the buildings
• Technologies seem promising, though still there are some improvements areas
• New technologies need to reach market volume to reduce current prices and reduce the payback period.
The following results have been achieved to reach this objective, as explained below:
• S&T 01.- Development of a New Systemic Retrofitting Methodology for Public Building and District
• S&T 02.- Development of a High Performance Retrofitting Envelope
• S&T 03.- Development of a Smart Lighting Systems
• S&T 04.- Development of a Dual Thermal Substation based on Absorption Technology for the Optimizing District Thermal Network
• S&T 05.- Deployment and Validation on the Systemic Methodology and New Technologies through Three Real Demonstration Public Districts
• S&T 06.- Demonstration of the Replicability of the Systemic Methodology and New Technologies through Three Virtual Demonstration Public Districts
• S&T 07.- Analysis the Transferability of the Methodology and Technological Solutions to Social Housing
• S&T 08.- Training the value chain and SMEs
• S&T 09.- Paving the Way for Project Results Exploitation
• S&T 10.- Definition of Business Model for Public Building Retrofitting
S&T 01.- Development of a New Systemic Retrofitting Methodology for Public Building and District
The aim was to develop a new approach to tackle Public Building energy retrofitting, taking into account the district scale and considering advantages of the building synergies.
A step-by-step methodology has been deployed. It starts with the analysis of the target building/district to characterise the current conditions through Key Performance Indicators or simplified scoring matrices, which will help identifying the relevant technical retrofitting gaps. Based on general energy strategies, the technical intervention possibilities feasible for the retrofit are determined. Technical intervention packages are selected considering the main objectives of the retrofit as defined by the stakeholder needs and the legal requirements. Finally, these packages will be evaluated from financial, technical and legal aspects through a SWOT analysis to assist decision making. Based on the methodology a user-friendly online tool is developed that assists building owners and managers in the early stages of the design to select the most favourable sustainable retrofit solution. Such methodologies and tools already exist for residential buildings, but not for public buildings and public districts. ( “Figure 2” Main steps of the methodology” in the figures and tables PDF depicts the process)
As a first step, the consortium researched and defined the main characteristics of public buildings and districts and their effect on energy consumption in order to identify their role during an energy efficient retrofitting.
A categorization of European public districts and buildings was developed based on previous typologies and researches, and by identifying the most important characteristics that should be assessed to provide a diagnosis for retrofitting. A questionnaire was assembled for building users and owners to gather information on the building and district which information was used to evaluate energy performance. The study provided a categorization of public buildings and districts based on their functionality and context, and determined the most important factors, characteristics that should be considered when assessing public building energy efficiency and retrofitting possibilities. After identifying the characteristics, a matrix was developed for the relationship of characteristics and energy usage. Finally, the interaction between energy usages was also drawn up to show the most important energy usages in case of public buildings.
As there is no generally accepted definition for public buildings, after collection of definitions from national and EU sources, public buildings and districts were defined within the framework of this project. A2PBEER approach on defining energy usage characteristics in public buildings included an investigation on three scales: Environment, District and Building. Based on this a categorization was provided. The correlations between characteristics and energy usage were defined as a characteristic matrix. The interaction between the different aspects was identified to make a diagnosis for a common retrofitting approach.
Within the project A2PBEER a list of the most relevant public retrofitting best practices examples and relevant initiatives, carried out at European level was elaborated. The most replicable and interesting examples for A2PBEER project were highlighted and classified considering some rules such as:
• The retrofitted building should be previously used as a public building.
• In case of main use change through the retrofitting process, the before-after results should be studied more carefully.
• If retrofitting and expansion are carried out at the same project, information should be provided just about the pre-existing building.
• Historic buildings and buildings under historical protection will not be considered in a general comparison due to its particular constraints.
The methodology followed for its elaboration was based on a survey distributed among partners to identify the best practices examples, considering as good practice examples the ones which answer to all of the following criteria:
• Availability of results: projects already completed which show concrete upraise of energy efficiency through renovation.
• Level of innovation: energy efficient measures and packages.
• Transferability: meaning that projects have to show a potential for transfer, both from a region to another one and from one function type to another.
As a result, 75 collected retrofitting examples were analyzed from different points of view, being main conclusions:
• Some types of buildings are extendedly covered by researches and international good cases lists (e.g. schools), while other building types are not addressed by researching activities yet as theatres and concert halls.
• The earlier approaches to energy retrofits rarely included RES integration.
• There is not link between existing non-residential floor area in a certain country and the number of identified best cases, though the biggest building stocks in Europe (Germany and UK) provide 27 cases out of 75.
• Additional insulation and replacement of windows are the most commonly applied followed by the replacement of lamps and boilers or heating source.
• Average number of technologies applied in each case is about four, but 65% of analyzed retrofitting applied five or more technologies.
• While the energetic benefits are clearly improved by the increased number of technologies applied, cost shows no direct relation to this parameter.
• Passive improvements are usually applied together and they are the first choice of combination with any other technology. Boiler and heating systems are the second most combined group of technologies, while ventilation strategies fall into the most uncommonly combined.
• At the lower cost section (less than 100 euro per square meter) a slight but not clear relation between cost and energy savings can be observed.
A2PBEER adopted a new holistic approach to retrofitting the buildings considering not only the building requirements, but also the occupants and community requirements, all the sectors in the energy value chain. The systemic methodology was based on pre-studies, including the identification of different types of buildings and districts and their main characteristics, the overview and summary of available building and system retrofit technologies, best practice examples and relevant European and national initiatives, a methodology to assess retrofitting projects concerning their financial profitability with a financial tool.
The technological recommendations built on the building/district assessment, and the established priority list addressing the needs in the particular project. The GAP analysis compares the actual state of the building/district with a predefined benchmark value, via the determined Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), identifying the ‘hotspots’ where intervention is necessary. Simultaneously, a Best Available Technique (BAT) analysis – identifying the gaps– gives a result from collating the current technical status of the building/district and the available technologies list, highlighting – as the name suggests – the best ones for the particular project. The gap analysis and the energy strategies definition outline the intervention areas, which – combined with the BAT – results in the so-called technologies priority list. This extensive list is further filtered by constraints analysis (operating conditions, climate). Further filtering determines the preliminary short list of possible technologies.
The synergic effect of applying a combination of technologies on a building or district scale is evaluated, which leads to a higher energy reduction of heating, cooling and lighting and more advantages compared to individual actions. Synergies in the 75 best practice examples collected have been analysed with a special focus on the occurrence of measures, the number of technologies applied together and the connections between energy reduction and costs.
Self-assessment evaluation methodologies, like SWOT and stakeholder analyses are also tailored to retrofitting public buildings/districts. Also, energy efficiency regulations and standards were evaluated on different levels: European, national, regional, city and building level.
This approach was used to design the guide oriented for promoters, designers and also the industrial companies but it was decided to be completed not only as a Deliverable, but also as an interactive web tool. The web-based tool provides a collection of easily operated tools for users regarding the retrofit of public buildings/districts and presents a user guide in order to support the user undertaking a retrofit of a building. These can be accessed from A2PBEER main site or directly at retrofit.a2pbeer.eu. For security reasons, registration is required for the web tool, with an automatic confirmation by the system. After logging in, the 6 sections (District and Building, National Standards, Stakeholder Analysis, Technology Recommendations, SWOT, Best Practice), are displayed, representing the step-by-step process, which guide the User through finding the most appropriate solution.
In Step 1, Users add building/district characteristics for one or more projects. The filtering criteria has been designed, so that non-expert users will also be able to complete the form. The answers can be chosen from the restricted option drop-down menus. Values have been assigned to each answer by background programming that were derived from 237 analyzed energy efficient solutions for building/district retrofitting under low energy use criteria. Step 2 is used to compare the building against the national standards in the country of the project. Step 3, the stakeholder analysis section is prepared as a self-assessment, in an easy and straightforward interface. In Step 4, the guide produces a technologies shortlist – tailored to filter the solutions for the Users’ building characteristics – which is the basis of the final intervention package and energy strategy for the particular project. The technologies list is arranged into the building service categories: Heating, Cooling, Ventilation, Lighting, DHW, Electricity. In Step 5, Users can complete a SWOT assessment of the possible retrofit intervention package, based on the work completed in Steps 1 to 4. Step 6. gathers examples of Public Buildings in Europe which have been retrofitted to a high level of energy efficient criteria and can be considered as best practice.
On each page, a Help button displays instructions on using the web-tool in that particular section. Download opis the firsts tions are available to best serve User experience, and to print out all or partial results.
S&T 02.- Development of a High-Performance Retrofitting Envelope
To minimize buildings space conditioning loads is necessary to act on the building’s opaque envelope and fenestratiosn.. A2PBEER has developed 3 envelope solutions, (1) an external ventilated façade system, (2) a stud mounted internal retrofitting system with VIP and (3) an smart window that switches its thermal properties, providing the best response possible for changing outdoor conditions.
In the two first, the challenge has been the integration of Vacuum Insulating Panel (VIP) within the envelope system that warranties the hygrothermal performance of the envelope, fulfilling most of European .building codes, with a minimum thickness, a competitive price and that is able to consider the internal wall future uses (radiators installation, sockets, ...). In the third the challenge has been the integration of an easy functioning mechanism that reverses easily window’s low-e glass coat while keeping rest of insulating glazing unit properties (airtightness and water tightness)
Information about country specific envelope data and identification of the most common envelope characteristics for public buildings was gathered to define best retrofit solutions for Public Building envelopes. Different solutions for the envelope system were analysed as explained below:
• External super insulated façade retrofitting system
• Internal super insulated façade retrofitting system
• Smart window
Three types of external super insulation systems designs were initially considered considering the placement of the high insulated Vacum Insulation Panel (VIP) in the air gap of the traditional ventilated façade solution. The solutions were based on an innovative automatic clip system (PVC) for fixing the VIP panels with minimum thermal bridges. Modelling activities were addressed to analyse thermal and mechanical performance; the thermal bridges arising from the connections among the VIP panels and between the connections of the substructure, supporting the cladding systems, to the building wall. Finally, the solution developed placed the 30mm highly insulated VIP panel on the internal side of the air gap providing an outstanding U1D value (0.158 W/m2K). Further increases in insulation thickness are of limited efficiency, as the overall U-value is highly influenced by 3D thermal bridges. Nevertheless, the original target U-value (0,2 W/m2K), could be achieved by thicker VIP panel but it was evaluated as non-economical approach. Thus, the efforts were put in reducing 2/3D heat transfer, and not in increasing the final VIP thickness. Maximizing the number of standard size panels (1100x700x30mm) allowed the most cost-efficient version. The demonstration buildings were 3D scanned thus detailed shop drawings that were used for manufacturing and layout of VIPs and cladding was critical for fast installations. ( “Figure 3. Opaque Façade and roof insulation with VIPs installed in UPV/EHU demo site ” included in the figures and tables PDF depicts VIP insulation layer and insulation continuity )
Avoiding puncturing the VIP was one of the main challenges in the implementation phase. This was achieved following the handling recommendations at construction site provided by the industrial manufacturers and experience sharing between Malmö and Bilbao demo-site. And so, the ratio of vacuum losses in the implementation was improved in the second demo-site.
The design of the internal super-insulated panel retrofitting system relies on a stud mounted system where continuous VIP insulation system was chosen, giving continuous insulation while avoiding humidity problems with the integrations of specific vapour barrier layers.. The final Internal super insulated façade retrofitting system solution incorporates rubber protection on the VIPs and offers two metal profile options to reach different possible room heights (up to 3.30m). 98% of the surface can be resolved with VIPs (most of them been standard size VIP panels) with only edges and details needing alternative PIR/PUR insulation. Thermal and hygrothermal simulations were carried out and a prototype was constructed, installed and monitored in Kubik, Tecnalia’s experimental building, to assess its installation and hygrothermal behaviour. This system was finally implemented in Malmö’s demo site and there is a concern about the moisture problems that might arise in the future because of the moisture build up between the existing vapor layer and the new layer. ( “Figure 4” Final design of the prototype installed in KUBIK” in the figures and tables PDF depicts the detail level of the design of the internal solution implemented in Kubik.
The reversible window concept was based on the idea of reversing sash in horizontal position through the central axis of the window to reverse the low-E glass coating position in summer and winter. The prototype went through different testing according to standards in order to determine: Air permeability, Wind load, Water tightness and thermal transmittance and acoustic resistance...The air permeability assessment was repeated after some gasket improvements and other small optimized details. Triple glazing reversible window was installed in Malmo’s demo site and a double glazing reversible window in UPV/EHU demo site’s.
S&T 03.- Development of a Smart Lighting Systems
Lighting represents one of the major uses of energy in buildings, specially in those with high lighting or visual comfort requirements like for example office, schools, libraries, etc
A new cost-effective kit of smart lighting system was design, developed and tested to contribute to reduce the electricity consumption and also to improve the end-user comfort and healthy conditions in Public Buildings. The smart lighting system mixes the natural light and artificial light in order to optimize the consumption and bring energy saving benefit to the public building. It achieves adaptability of lights according to user requirements while reducing the energy consumption at the same time. The reduction of consumption, in A2PBEER smart lighting system is both based on the energy saved from the LED implementation and from the zero-cost support of the natural light. The kit is composed by LED lighting, intelligent system of lighting management and natural lighting collector for indoor application.
Component implementation: Using an existing technology like LED light tighter with a new growing idea of bringing the solar light into a building through a fibre optic cable the project has developed an integrated kit according the images here below.
Controller implementation: The smart lighting kit utilizes a set of LED light dimmable lamps, Raspberry Pi controller, solar collectors and fibre optic cables in order to achieve the desired goal of internal lighting limit and maximized the lighting conform of the building occupants.
S&T 04.- Development of a Dual Thermal Substation based on Absorption Technology for the Optimizing District Thermal Network
The conceptual design of the thermal substation and the conceptualization of the smart dual thermal network is represented by an innovative absorption component enabling the generation of heating and cooling from heat source such as solar and/or district and/or other sources (local CHP). A scheme of the thermal circuit along with the operational procedures for retrofitting the building’s substation to the new concept was laid down within the project. The new concept relies on the implementation, besides cooling energy generation from network provided heat, of a bi-directional heat exchange between buildings and network.
Initial simulations showed that the CollSorp Collector, the sorption integrated solar collector, required improvements to reduce thermal losses to give satisfactory efficiencies when integrated with in a bi-directional network. A prototype for an improved solar collector with integrated sorption modules was design and manufactured and experimentally evaluated using vacuum tube technology. The prototype was proven to have satisfactory efficiency based on the tests. (Collectors array on top of Ankara Roof can be depicted in fig. 8)
For the development of the thermal substation based on the integration of absorption components. a calibrated mathematical model was developed based on the experimental evaluations of the Collsorp collector prototype. A methodology based on a specifically designed co-simulation process was developed, validated and used to evaluate the potential energy and operating cost savings provided by deploying the CollSorp collector. Three substation typologies have been defined to adjust the general concept of the substation to the boundary conditions that can be expected on the implementation of the innovative thermal network concept. The results led to the definition of several substation sub-typologies for the developed typologies. Building Thermal Substation and hydraulic arrangements for each of the defined substation typologies and sub-typologies were developed and presented in a condensed format.
S&T 05.- Deployment and Validation on the Systemic Methodology and New Technologies through Three Real Demonstration Public Districts
Successful renovation of Net Zero Public Buildings, through an affordable and adaptable systemic retrofitting approach based on innovative energy efficient retrofitting solutions has been achieved in three real demonstration districts, cover almost all climatic zones. Figure 9 depicts 3 real demo buildings before and after retrofitting.
Initially, general procedures with specific control documents were developed for each phase to assist the owners to easily follow the complete process and enable an early detection of deviations or delays and the identification of the causes/responsible.
As a second stage, the assessment of the pre-intervention state of all the demo buildings was carried out, including the following stages:
• Demo sites data gathering (plans, construction details, use description, energy bills, etc).
• Generation of plans/drawings in dwg.
• Definition of an energy simulation general framework document, to ensure consistency among the simulation analysis performed by the different partners
• Creation of the base-case building computer model to quantify pre-intervention energy use and costs.
The base case contains the information of the building before intervention (shape, location, envelope, schedules, internal gains, HVAC systems, RES...)
• Parametric analysis of current state energy behaviour through energy simulations determining building energy use sensitivities to specific load components (transmission losses, ventilation losses, lighting loads, solar gains, and plug or equipment loads).
• Comparison/adjust of energy simulation results with energy carrier bills.
• Evaluation of pre-renovation performance and identification of the main intervention areas
Retrofitting project design alternatives were developed taking in consideration the 50% energy use reduction goal. Energy impact and cost effectiveness of each variant were analysed by comparing the energy use with the original base case building and with the other variants. Final definition of intervention areas and details defining the retrofitting project was carried out taking into account cost/energy optimization of the possible energy efficient solutions.
After the completion of the implementation of the A2PBEER new technological solutions in the demo sites, the dedicated energy monitoring platform has gathered the energy use during a year and results have been compared to data obtained in the pre intervention period , these are the results, comparing estimated and the actual energy savings of the three demo cases. (refer to Table 1. On the attached document of the figures and tables PDF for further details )
Bellow there is a brief description of the learned lessons through the execution of the retrofitting project and the monitoring:
Regarding the External super insulated façade retrofitting system the 3D scanning of the building and the detailed shop drawings for manufacturing of VIPs and cladding was critical for the fast installations. Initial problems regarding the VIPs handling and installation were solved by training skilled professionals in traditional ventilated façades installation. This allowed finalizing the construction works in a very short time. Main construction difficulties were related to adjusting special fixings such as pillars, windows, roof and corners with rigid PIR instead of placing VIP insulation. This was time consuming because, in order to warranty insulation continuity, it needed to be cut on site to adjust to site according to the specific dimensions of the piece to be installed. PU foam to fix the PIR and chemical plugs could not be used due to Swedish regulations. Finally, the area covered with PIR was larger than estimated
Puncturing rates of VIPs were significantly reduced from the Malmö demo site implementation to UPV/EHU demo site implementation from 30% to 15%. Transport care and quarantine time are some of factors that influenced in this factor. Due to the delay of the construction works the VIPs in the UPV/EHU demo site had a 1-year quarantine. All punctured VIPs were replaced and once they were place additional 48 hours quarantine was allowed before installing the cladding.
VIP tolerances and dimensions should be adjusted according to cladding tolerances. Ceramic cladding tolerances are 1 cm per 10 m while VIPs is 1 cm per 1 m.
Regarding the Internal super insulated façade system implemented in Malmö demos site, it needs improvements to allow heights over 3m. The vapor barrier of the existing envelope may cause moisture problems therefore it will be monitoring of mould growth in the future.
The reversible window was easy to install but it had some problems with the sash. The window technology must improve regarding the sealing system which does not work properly.
LED lighting with control operate properly and prices are in market. HYBRID luminaries’ technology must be improved regarding its integration with LED lighting. But if comfort increase is considered price could fit in. LED lighting with control reduced a 45% the lighting electricity consumption.
A2PBEER technologies retrofitting implementation in UPV/EHU comprises a reduction of 32% of the Heat Loss Coefficient (from 5.13 kW/ºC to 3.49 kW/ºC) of the building envelope. If similar indoor temperatures would be maintained pre- and post-retrofitting at least 40% of reduction of heating demand would be obtained. T_in_prerotrofitting = 22.9ºC vs. T_in_postretrofitting = 23.9ºC. Rebound effect of 8% increase of heating due to 1ºC increase in temperature difference. Plus another 10-12% heating increase due to lighting, 45% energy consumption decrease.
S&T 06.- Demonstration of the Replicability of the Systemic Methodology and New Technologies through Three Virtual Demonstration Public Districts
A framework for technical replication of 4 virtual pilots was defined to facilitate the demonstration of replicability of the methodology and the technologies developed in the A2PBEER project. The virtual pilots used the framework to select intervention technologies before doing simulations to confirm the effects of the interventions.
The A2PBEER retrofitting methodology was applied to the virtual pilots in order to identify cost-effective retrofitting interventions. First an assessment of the virtual pilots through a dynamic energy simulation was performed in order to enable a comparison to defined key performance indicators. Then appropriate retrofitting actions were identified and implemented in the simulation model. A limited number of retrofitting actions were applied and compared in order to verify the A2PBEER methodology and the new technological solutions. The energy simulations are aimed at calculating:
• Buildings current energy use on a year basis, identifying improvement areas (envelope losses, infiltration and ventilation losses, distribution losses and generation improvements).
• Buildings potential energy use after different energy retrofitting solutions.
The following steps were followed in the virtual pilots:
1. Analyse virtual pilots through key performance indicators
2. Compare to benchmark values
3. Identify technical intervention possibilities by using the support guide toolkit developed at see S&T 01
4. Analysis of synergy effects
5. Identify stakeholder needs and legal requirements using the stakeholder analysis tool
6. Identify technical intervention packages
7. SWOT analysis for financial, technical, and legal aspects
8. Select appropriate technical intervention package
9. Implement the selected technical intervention package in the simulation tool
Following this methodology, after the characterization of the buildings, a list of KPIs were defined in order to assess the intervention areas that allow to improve the building performance using the A2PBeer solutions.
The table 2 summarizes the KPIs values of 4 different configurations for the Italian virtual pilot, San Martino Hospital located in Genova with high winter temperatures and very big solar energy contribution during the whole year.
This analysis validated the potentiality of the selected A2PBEER solutions in terms of energy savings and returns of the investment needed. With respect to pay-back-period (PBP) KPI the best solution was the intervention package 3 in which lighting system was renovated and windows were substituted. Good results in terms of energy savings and PBP were achievable also with intervention package 1 in which all the intervention proposed were applied.
The virtual case in Norway was the Deichman library on Schous plass in Oslo protected as a cultural heritage building, and therefore there were constraints concerning some retrofitting actions permitted. The following table 3 shows the comparison of scenarios impacts on the final energy demand and energy savings:
In terms of final energy demand Scenario2 has the least impact, while scenario 3 is the single intervention scenario with the highest impact and also gives the largest energy savings. Scenario 5, which includes all single intervention actions (changing existing windows to the A2PBEER SMART reversible window system, adding insulation to the slabs, and adding internal insulation to the opaque facades) is the scenario with the largest impact as well as the optimal scenario considering user comfort.
3rd virtual case was a citizen services office located in Zagreb, Croatia. The HEP ODS Elektra Zagreb building is a protected cultural heritage monument in Croatia. Therefore, there were significant constraints in selection of the energy retrofitting solutions. 3 scenarios were set: scenario 1 is the most ambitious retrofitting scenario. Scenario 2 includes a middle ground retrofitting actions and scenario 3 is the least ambitious retrofitting scenario. Optimal represents the solutions which provide the minimum energy performance/investment cost ratio and A2PBEER best represents the scenario with no economical nor technical limitations, and in which the A2PBEER technological solutions use has been maximized. The potential energy savings for the scenarios are summarized in table 4, Figure 10,)
S&T 07.- Analysis the Transferability of the Methodology and Technological Solutions to Social Housing
The A2PBEER project showed very good results regarding the transferability of the methodology set up and implemented during the project to the social housing sector.
The A2PBEER methodology indeed meets social housing owners needs of an integrated and global approach allowing them to get to comply with national thermal regulation, take into account each of the stakeholders’ wills and needs and plan a whole and long-term intervention on their building stock. Each of these steps are taken into account through the A2PBEER methodology and tools, from technical to human factors.
The A2PBEER methodology relies on key performance indicators comparison between the pre-intervention status of the building and the results of selected intervention scenarios. Social housing building owners, being at the same time builders, landlords, decision makers and buyers are able to provide precise data regarding the building and its specifications (building material, works already conducted...) thus, simulations are closer to reality. Social building owners also need to choose interventions from a range of energy efficiency ones, carefully looking at payback period and investment costs where the A2PBEER financial tool can help.
Cost effectiveness factor is one of the most important when the main objective is to reduce energy charges for tenants and when tenants and landlords somewhat share investment costs. Financially speaking, VIPs showed an interesting cost effectiveness while reversible windows still appear more expensive than conventional double or triple glazing efficient windows for the moment but it should be kept in mind that the patent of this technology is still in progress. Of course, only one typology of building has been used for simulations.
First, the virtual social housing demo site had specific features such as full access to natural light, absence of cooling demand, which might differ in another geographical context, or existing internal isolation, which reduces the gap between pre- intervention and post retrofitting status. Indeed, not all the technologies developed in the A2PBEER project could be assessed as some were not relevant for the virtual social housing demo site such as hybrid lighting and absorption system.
In addition, social housing retrofitting projects are often conducted while people are living there so external interventions are preferred to avoid creating trouble for tenants. Thus, some of the A2PBEER technologies might better apply to other types of public buildings, setting them up in an empty place.
To finish, the A2PBEER project recognized its methodology and technologies transferability to social housing. Yet, people’s behavior is an important efficiency factor, complicated to know and quantify. Social housing owners, just as any other public building owner, should probably keep looking for a way to include such a parameter as soon as possible in preliminary studies and the definition of interventions.
S&T 08.- Training the value chain and SMEs
The A2PBEER project successfully trained 14 trainers from 11 countries; Spain, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Norway, France, Turkey, Poland and Sweden with 2 additional trainers from ACE (Belgium) and LIT (Ireland) as the principal trainers for this workshop. The Train the Trainer workshop has been included in the Prof-Trac project training repository and Lis O’Brien from LIT is a registered trainer. The resources and materials are all available to download on this repository (http://proftrac.eu/training-material/search-training-material.html )
The target for the training for the A2PBEER project was to train 150 to 300 people during its lifetime. After completing a Train-the-Trainer workshop in September 2016, the 14 certified trainers carried out 13 training workshops across Europe. Four demonstration workshops trained 154 stakeholders whilst the 8 SME training workshops trained another 156 stakeholders over twelve months. This totalled 310 stakeholders trained in the A2PBEER project reaching the maximum target proposed.
The training workshops could be delivered in various formats as the content was prepared with flexibility in mind. It was essential to ensure sustainability of the trainings so not only is the training short in length and can be presented on-line or in blended mode (classroom and on-line) but the 6 units can be added into other training workshops and modules as individual units or combined. (process scheme is depicted in figure 12)
Some of the training learning units LUs were included in other training workshops. LIT used the financial tool in the ManagEnergy project. Where modules were delivered by leading energy experts over 3 days in Brussels, the classes were targeted at senior and experienced energy agency staff who have the opportunity to lead the development of investments in sustainable energy projects in their region/city. It is supported by an on-line resource portal and participants have the opportunity to gain academic credits for their participation in the programme. As part of the financial module, unit 5 (financial tool) was considered extremely useful for energy agencies around Europe as an introduction into financial appraisal and understandings. http://www.managenergy.net/MasterClass . (Table 5 summarizes the training courses performed)
The materials for the Train the Trainer and Training Workshops are freely available on the A2PBEER website (http://www.a2pbeer.eu/e-learning/training-resources/) and LIT moodle, Open Virtual; Learning Platform.
S&T 09.- Paving the Way for Project Results Exploitation
The A2PBEER project website was developed in M3 of the project and has served as a platform for relevant information regarding the overall project and the different demonstration projects. All public deliverables have been made available at the web-site. Continuously up-dates has been made in order to disseminate different activities at the demonstration sites as well as main findings and results from each deliverable. below is shown the activity carried put in the last 54 months. (as it is depicted in figure 13)
The website and Social Media is a permanent dissemination channel. It is to be managed by LIT until February 2020 where additional news will be added every month, promoting not only the development of the A2PBEER technologies but also the further monitoring and energy savings / CO2 reductions of the three demonstration buildings. A2PBEER is connected to other EU funded projects and have uploaded information onto the 2030 palette in Spain (For details refer to table 6).
Other links to the website include the A2PBEER youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC4mexkwHMm9DWiJlVIfRJ6A which currently has 18 videos promoting the A2PBEER project and materials. (For details refer to Figure 14)
The table 7 shows a summary of the Conferences and workshops where the A2PBEER project was presented:
S&T 10.- Definition of Business Model for Public Building Retrofitting
The industrial partners resources and capabilities analysis was conducted as well as stakeholder and market to merged both into an individual business models for each industrial partner.
The main outcomes of the exploitation activities carried out during the project life and with the support of two Exploitation Strategy Seminar dealing with the Final Exploitation Plan elaboration were:
• Elaboration and refinement of the list of Exploitable Results (ERs) according to the final accomplishment of the project (further details in table 8.)
• Characterization and detailed depiction of the ERs according to the technical, commercial and academic progress achieved by the project highlighting the main features, functionalities and advantages as well as identifying possible applications
• Definition of the main role played by the main partners involved in the development of the specific ER including details about the performed activities
• Revision and final release of the Intellectual Properties Rights (IPRs) management by means of the Exploitation Matrix table investigating also the actual exploitation intentions according to the exploitation rights distribution of the ERs with the final aim of safeguarding the value of project results (details in table 9).
• Formulation of a market perspective for the most promising ERs based on the identified target market and the relative size, customers, needs, expectations, technical and/or economic advantages, innovative characteristics, key selling points, time to market uptake, cost estimation
• Assessment of the risk analysis including an evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of the mitigation actions to examine the effective success of interventions. The results of such analysis were shown in a Priority Maps as the example below for ER1 in Figure 15).
• Elaboration of Business Models for the ERs with an adequate level of development and consequently readiness to a potential market uptake based on the Canvas approach.
• Classification of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of some ERs was performed according to the maturity of the main outcomes and solutions, as shown in the figure 16.
• Technological and non-technological Research & Development (R&D) actions were outlined to be undertaken by key partners immediately after the end of the project in order to facilitate the market uptake of the most advanced A2PBEER project results.
The individual business models were compared to each other and a common strategy and a strategic plan for the Sustainable Compatible Business Cluster (SCBC) was formed by implementing a web platform that will act as a facilitator for exploitation of the innovative products.
The Exploitation of the SCBC Platform was divided into European level platforms and Local level platforms. The platforms should be aligned with the following criteria:
a) Same target groups: building owners, architects and consultants
b) Both companies of the SCBC and best practices (demo sites in Malmö, Bilbao and Ankara) should be displayed on the website
c) The site shall allow business promotion, i.e. shall not be focused strictly on for example research.
d) The platform will have to bear their own cost for implementation.
The implementation activities have been carried out following this methodology outlined in 5 steps: 1) Define the scope of content. 2) Define the stakeholders to be reached. 3) Define and Evaluate Platforms. 4) Contact selected platforms. 5) Revise information materials to fit audience and platform
At European level, very few web platforms are not linked to specific projects; very few platforms accept business promotion and very few platforms accept new, innovative products that are prototypes and lack environmental certifications. Most platforms are updated manually. On a European level “RenoWiki”, an existing platform within the EU-project BUILD-UPON, was chosen.
For local platforms each demo site country has found local platforms such as Arkitera (Turkey), EVE (Spain) and Smart City Sweden (Sweden). Different technical solutions have been developed to connect to the chosen platforms which mostly require manual solution. This will make it hard to update and maintain over time.
The table 10 summarizes the platforms for SCBC both at European and national level:
The project derived several already discussed objectives, ultimately aimed at the creation of a number of impacts, expected by the EC. The following paragraphs discuss individually each of the impacts previously identified in the GA, and providing a detailed explanation of how A2PBEER has achieved the impact objectives settled by the been widely transferred to the whole European Union and Associated Countries as well as to other countries through active dissemination and training activities carried out. The Sustainable Compatible Business Cluster (SCBC) will also facilitate the exploitation of the A2PBEER innovative products both at European and local level.
• Contribution to European policies and strategies: The project has contributed to achieve the targets on energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 emissions in line with the 2050 decarbonization goal for the European economy by increasing the building refurbishment activity. The technologies developed in the framework of the A2PBEER project have been implemented in three existing public districts (multi-buildings), in three different climatic conditions (Spain, Turkey and Sweden) and with different end-uses. The estimated savings of the demo sites represent a reduction of more than 30% their energy consumption compared to the values before renovation. The project results have • Energy impact: A2PBEER project has contributed to the implementation of the Directive 2012/27/EU by targeting public districts’ deep energy renovation with an energy consumption reduction of over 30%. As it was stated in the GA the depth of the retrofitting is also an import factor when analysing the potential reduction of energy consumption. A2PBEER retrofitting demonstration cases have reach the following savings due to differences in the intervention scope, in climate conditions, and the previous conditions of each building itself. A summary of the savings in each one of the 3 cases is shown in the table 11:
• Economic impact: An economic analysis has been carried out in the frame of the A2PBEER in order to evaluate the Payback periods of the solutions developed in both real and virtual demonstrators. Retrofitting costs for the solutions and proposed scenarios with the savings achieved after the implementation and the payback time have been evaluated. Each retrofitting case has been analysed and a strategy has been designed for each building intervention accordingly, comparing the energy reduction due the effect of the technologies applied. A pre-retrofitting or baseline stage was calculated for each virtual demonstration building through simulations to compare them with the targeted benchmark values depending on the climatic zone, building use, energy standard of the country... etc.
In each of the real demo sites a continuous pre-intervention monitoring campaign was completed to establish the baselines scenarios. Analysis and evaluation of the monitored results was performed during the monitoring, and especially when developing the baseline situation. New energy needs of the buildings after passive retrofitting actions were identified taking into account the actual constrains of the buildings.
The A2PBEER technologies developed during the project provide very high energy savings but the actual price to integrate these technologies offer very long return periods. It is expected that these products will became cheaper when they reach construction market volumes. Still, comparing the cost of renovation and payback periods to the cost of constructing a new building of similar characteristics, retrofitting cost is 20% lower. But the economic return does not only come from the direct reduction of the energy demand in buildings. The growth of the comfort conditions of the users and occupants, better internal air quality, natural lighting conditions results on health benefits which can be higher than any other costs.
Creation of employment in the construction sector is one of the economic benefits of the renovation activity carried out in the A2PBEER due to the implementation of the new technologies developed in the frame of the project. The capacity building of construction workers and SMEs has been boost by the real demonstrator cases through the training activities carried out.
• Market impact. Replicability of project achievements, including other types of buildings: The A2PBEER project has successfully proved the transferability of the new Systemic Retrofitting Methodology and new technologies to different types of public buildings as well as to the social housing sector. In this sense the market impact of this project is not restricted to public building but also large private-owned buildings (commercial buildings, hotels, privately-owned offices, education and sport facilities, etc.) are targets of this methodology.
Considering the age profile of buildings in the EU (35% of the EU's buildings are over 50 years old) and the slow replacement rates, the renovation potential of buildings in the EU is huge-up to110 million buildings could be in need of renovation
• Environmental impact: The potential CO2 savings thanks to the implementation of A2PBEER standard (deep-renovation of publicly-owned non-residential buildings) in the period 2010-2050 could be around 1.069 tn CO2. The reduction of energy consumption with the A2PBBER standard will be a minimum of 50%.
• Social impact: creation of new jobs and creation of new generation of skilled workers and SME’s contractors in the construction sector: SMEs account for more than 95% of companies in the construction sector in Europe and therefore A2PBEER training activities performed within the frame of the Project has had a strong focus on these professionals providing them with knowledge and practice in renovation activities carried out. The retrofitting methodology and solution kits developed in A2PBEER have been effectively
A2PBEER meets the need to provide a strong foundation for improving the knowledge level and the practice in renovation activities through its train-the-trainer approach that increases the effectiveness in knowledge transfer, required in a so fragmented sector, reaching between 150 and 300 professionals during the 4 years project duration.
The retrofitting methodology and solution kits developed in A2PBEER project focus on publicly-owned non-residential buildings. The estimated market volume of deep-renovation of publicly-owned non-residential buildings in Europe would generate 1.097.158 new jobs in the period 2010 to 2020. The average number of new jobs created per year shall be around 30.000.
Main dissemination activities
Since the beginning of the project dissemination activities were planned in line with the initial strategy drafted by the Dissemination Plan, identifying the appropriate dissemination sources and channels, both focused on A2PBEER technologies and demonstrators. In addition, to the project’s website (http://www.a2pbeer.eu/ ) and the series of newsletter gathering the most interesting results of the project, (eight of them; http://www.a2pbeer.eu/results-reports/newsletters/ ), project videos and brochures translated into local languages for a deeper local impact supported the dissemination activities as a way to document the development of the project.
In parallel, the project has developed a training programme involving all stakeholders in the construction sector, especially SMEs. The Train the Trainer workshop successfully trained 14 trainers from 11 countries; Spain, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Norway, France, Turkey, Poland and Sweden with 2 additional trainers from ACE (Belgium) and LIT (Ireland) as the principal trainers for this workshop. The resources and materials are all available to download on this repository: http://www.a2pbeer.eu/e-learning/ . The 14 certified trainers carried out 13 training workshops across Europe. A Total of 310 stakeholders were trained in the A2PBEER project.
The exploitation plan settled the basis for the approach followed for the Exploitation Strategy of A2PBEER. The exploitable results (ER) of the project are of industrial type, engineering consultancy and academic such as training courses. A market perspective for the most promising ERs based on the identified target market and the relative size, customers, needs, expectations, technical and/or economic advantages, innovative characteristics, key selling points, time to market uptake, cost estimation was formulated and a Business Model was elaborated for the ERs with an adequate level of development and consequently readiness to a potential market uptake. In order to facilitate the market uptake of the most advanced A2PBEER project results of a strategic planning roadmap including technological and non-technological Research & Development (R&D) actions to be undertaken by key partners was outlined.
The A2PBEER documentation contains the progress and results of the technology readiness level (TRL) of the ER. and the main steps to be carried out for the exploitation in terms of core materials and enabling technologies, standard and quality, socio economics activities as well as legal measures, IPR and administrative aspects as well as plants commissioning activities.
List of Websites:
Project website address: http://www.a2pbeer.eu
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org / Tel: +34 667178916
Project coordinator: Ms. Eneritz Barreiro
Project Manager, Sustainable Construction Division
Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation
List of beneficiaries:
• TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION (Spain)
• RINA CONSULTING (Italy)
• TOSHIBA TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTIONEUROPE SPA (Italy)
• PARANS SOLAR LIGHTNING AB (Sweden)
• CLIMATEWELL AB (Sweden)
• BERGAMO TECNOLOGIE SPZOO (Poland)
• ACCIONA CONSTRUCCION S.A. (Spain)
• ISOLEIKA KOOP.ELK. S COOP (Spain)
• ABUD MERNOKIRODA KFT (Hungary)
• EKODENGE MUHENDISLIK. MIMARLIK DANISMANLIK TICARET ANONIM SIRKETI (Turkey)
• AFLIVA DANISMANLIK VE EGITIM MERKEZI IKTISADI ISLETMESI (Turkey)
• CONSEILS DES ARCHITECTES D’EUROPE (Belgium)
• HEP - ESCO DOO ZA VODENJE I FINANCIRANJE PROJEKATA ENERGETSKE UCINKOVITOSTI (Croatia)
• IVL SVENSKA MILJOEINSTITUTET AB (Sweden)
• LIMERICK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Ireland)
• UNIVERSIDAD DEL PAIS VASCO/ EUSKAL HERRIKO UNIBERTSITATEA (Spain)
• MALMO STAD (Sweden)
• NATIONAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION (Turkey)
• OSLO KOMMUNE (Norway)
• ENTE VASCO DE LA ENERGIA (Spain)
Grant agreement ID: 609060
1 September 2013
28 February 2018
€ 10 259 963,05
€ 6 500 000
FUNDACION TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION
Deliverables not available
Grant agreement ID: 609060
1 September 2013
28 February 2018
€ 10 259 963,05
€ 6 500 000
FUNDACION TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION
Grant agreement ID: 609060
1 September 2013
28 February 2018
€ 10 259 963,05
€ 6 500 000
FUNDACION TECNALIA RESEARCH & INNOVATION