The European Commission (EC), Directorate-General XII, has recently published some results from the non-nuclear energy programme (1990 to 1994) JOULE II. Two series of results include a synthesis of key findings and recommendations from the assessment of completed projects (published in two volumes), and a report on individual assessments of completed projects (published in three volumes). In the report on the key findings of the JOULE II project, the approach, motivation and backgrounds, effectiveness of cooperation, role of the Commission and dissemination of results are discussed. The exploitation and commercialisation of these results are also considered along with market prospects, wider impacts and a sectoral analysis. The JOULE II projects assessed individually in the second publication include the following: - Analysis of strategies and modelling: - - Analysis of strategies; - - Development of new methods; - Minimum emission power production from fossil fuels: - - Energy production form fossil sources using advanced technologies; - - Reduction of emissions; - - Security of supply of hydrocarbons; - - Utilisation of hydrocarbons; - Energy utilization and conservation: - - New options in energy conversion - fuel cells; - - Industry; - - Buildings; - - Combustion; - - Fuel-cell and battery-driven electrical vehicles; - Renewable energy sources: - - The solar house; - - Solar building projects; - - Renewable power plants; - - Large wind turbines; - - Generic wind energy research and development; - - Grid connected photovoltaic systems; - - Electric utility issues; - - Biomass; - - Renewable energies for rural electricity, local fuel and water; - - Photovoltaic (PV) crystalline silicon cells; - - PV thin-film cells; - - Stand-alone PV systems; - - Local and regional renewable energy projects; - - Renewable energy for developing countries; - - Geothermal energy; - - Deep reservoir geology.