In the wake of the Telecommunications Council of 13 June 1995, Commissioner Van Miert, in cooperation with Commissioner Bangemann, has put forward an Article 90 Directive to introduce full competition in the EU mobile and personal communications market by 1 January 1996. Substantial progress has already been made in the Member States as EU competition rules have been applied to abolish monopolies in the provision of mobile services. However, the new measures include liberalization of the most important cost factors for the new market entrants, particularly use of own facilities and alternative infrastructure. With the Directive, the EU market will be the first to enjoy the combination of liberalization of services and networks, together with the deployment of harmonized, leading edge, digital standards over such a large area. These are GSM, DCS 1800 (the two frequencies available for digital mobile services) and DECT (digital cordless telephony within a fixed radius). The Directive is based on the discussion process launched last year by the Green Paper on Mobile and Personal Communications. It requires Member States to abolish all exclusive and special rights in the area of mobile communications and, wherever this has not yet been achieved, to establish licensing procedures to authorize the launch of digital services (GSM, DCS 1800 and DECT). Building on the consensus reached by EU Telecommunications Ministers, the Directive also goes further on specific issues, most importantly concerning use of own and alternative infrastructure. It removes all existing restrictions on use of facilities for mobile networks, allowing new mobile operators to make full use of their own infrastructure as well as that provided by third parties such as utilities' networks. The countries with less-developed networks are to be given derogations of up to five years to take account of their specific situations. This concerns Portugal, Greece, Spain and Ireland. Very small networks (Luxembourg) will have a two-year derogation. The Directive also abolishes restrictions on direct interconnection for mobile networks.