On 31 October 1995, the European Commission and Israel signed a scientific cooperation agreement which provides for the participation of Israeli researchers and research organizations in the non-nuclear specific R&D programmes of the Community's Fourth Framework Programme. Community researchers and research organizations will, in exchange, be able to participate in Israeli research programmes and their results. Under the terms of the agreement, the Israeli government will provide a financial contribution of ECU 97.1 million to the Framework Programme for the period 1996-1997. This is the equivalent to 1.05% of the overall budget. Israel will also gain observer status on the programme committees which assist the Commission in the implementation of the Framework Programme and which are composed of representatives from the Member States. Israeli representatives on these committees will, however, not have the right to vote and will have to respect certain conditions (be absent during voting and during certain discussions reserved for Member States). Special attention has been paid to the protection of intellectual property rights on the results of research.