Assessing technological capabilities of non-EU countries around the eastern and southern Mediterranean could open up a myriad of opportunities for scientific collaboration and exchange. The EU-funded project 'Evaluation of science, technology and innovation capabilities in the Mediterranean countries' (Estime) documented the scientific and technological environment in several Arab countries. Covering Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Palestinian Territories and Tunisia, the project outlined scientific activities in the Levant and north Africa, as well as relevant human and social sciences. It described higher education institutions, research organisations and policies related to science and technology (S&T), conducting a survey on scientific production as well. Estime also examined how science and scientific results were exploited, looking at links between researchers and industry, as well as upcoming projects and business activity. It analysed the role of social sciences despite difficulties with documented data, producing statistical and institutional reports for each country study. Some of these reports contained a comprehensive bibliometric analysis at institutional and macro levels, including comparisons of micro and macro bibliometric data. The project also conducted a review of policies related to S&T in six countries, as well as innovation surveys in Morocco and Tunisia. Lastly, it undertook a review of innovation policies in all countries, completing a set of reports that would allow stakeholders to move forward and upgrade cooperation with the EU.