Initiatives under Article 169 of the Treaty establishing the European Community COORDINATION OF NON-COMMUNITY RESEARCH PROGRAMMES The action undertaken in this field will make use of two main tools: the ERA-NET scheme and the participation of the Community in jointly implemented national research programmes (Treaty Article 169). The action will also be used to enhance the complementarity and synergy between the Framework Programme and activities carried out in the framework of intergovernmental structures such as EUREKA, EIROforum and COST. Financial support for the administration and coordination activities of COST will be provided so that COST can continue to contribute to coordination and exchanges between nationally funded research teams. Where the actions are within the scope of one of the themes, they will be supported as an integral part of the activities under that theme. Where the actions are of a horizontal nature or not directly linked to the ten themes, they will be supported jointly across all of the relevant themes.Where the actions are within the scope of another Specific Programme implementing the Seventh Framework Programme, they will be supported under that Specific Programme. The ERA-NET scheme will develop and strengthen the coordination of national and regional research activities by:• providing a framework for actors implementing public research programmes to step up the coordination of their activities. This will include support for new ERA-NETs as well as for the broadening and deepening of the scope of existing ERA-NETs, e.g. by extending their partnership, as well as mutually opening their programmes. Where appropriate, ERA-NETs could be applied for programme coordination between European regions and between Member States to enable their cooperation with large-scale initiatives, • in a limited number of cases, providing additional Community financial support for those participants that pool resources for the purpose of joint calls for proposals between their respective national and regional programmes ("ERA-NET PLUS"). The participation of the Community in national research programmes jointly implemented on the basis of Article 169 is especially relevant to European cooperation on a large scale in "variable geometry" between Member States sharing common needs and/or interests. In well identified cases, such Article 169 initiatives will be launched in areas identified in close association with the Member States, including the possible cooperation with intergovernmental programmes, on the basis of the criteria defined in the Seventh Framework Programme decision. Initiatives may be identified and proposed during the implementation of the Seventh Framework Programme.