International cooperation with Japan for Research and Innovation on advanced biofuels and alternative renewable fuels Proposals will aim at international cooperation with Japan[[The Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) is the expected funding Japanese authority]] involving Japanese organisations in the consortia for the development of disruptive catalytic technologies, by developing novel catalysts and linked lab-scale components/systems with significantly improved performance for conversion efficiency and specific marginal cost reduction for obtaining low-cost bioenergy carriers, non-food/feed based advanced biofuels and alternative renewable fuels (excluding hydrogen) and maximizing GHG abatement.Proposals are expected to bring technologies to TRL 3 (please see part G of the General Annexes).The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 2 to 5 million would allow this challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. Disruptive conversion technologies are needed for replacing completely the use of fossil fuels in the transport and heating sectors with advanced biofuels and alternative renewable fuels. International collaboration is mutually beneficial in strategic areas where knowledge can be exchanged and Europe can obtain leadership together with its international partners.In line with the strategy for EU international cooperation in research and innovation (COM(2012)497), actions will contribute to the Mission Innovation Challenge 4[[http://mission-innovation.net/our-work/innovation-challenges/sustainable-biofuels-challenge/]]. It is expected that the exchange of knowledge through the targeted research activities with Japan will progress the technology state-of-the-art and in addition it will strengthen the European and Japanese technology base. At the same time, it is expected that the development of renewable fuels that outperform the best fossil fuel alternatives is accelerated.