Addressing aviation safety challenges The research actions under this topic should support the implementation of the European Aviation Safety Plan by promoting a culture of safety in aviation, by developing and enhancing safety-related products and processes, and notably novel pathways to deliver the safety enhancements in a more cost-effective manner. Proposals should address one or several of the following areas:―More robust, cost-efficient solutions for the whole life-cycle, based on novel methodologies and technologies towards improving the safety of the air transport system.―Novel systematic identification of hazards and handling of data and processes tailored to the requirements of aviation that are efficient, effective and acceptable by all the relevant parties in the aviation value-chain.―An improved understanding of environmental phenomena, their detection and the protection of aircraft in order to increase safety and reliability of operation.―Performance of studies and research activities towards reinforcing old and developing new EASA capabilities that will contribute to its performance-based regulatory and certification mission. Proposals may address research areas linked to implementation and monitoring of safety rules, type-certification of aircraft and components and approval of organisations involved in the design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical products.The proposals should be consistent with the European Aviation Safety Plan and should include the explicit commitment from the European Aviation Safety Agency to assist or to participate in the actions.When applicable, the proposed actions should consider the mutual implications of safety and security, they should take into account ACARE's Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda and they should complement past and on-going EU-cofunded research. The increased coordination of national and EU research activities is encouraged.In line with the strategy for EU international cooperation in research and innovation[[COM(2012)497]], international cooperation is encouraged, in particular in order to contribute to common regulations, standards and certification rules, among others at United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organisation.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 5 and 9 million each would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. Safety is embedded in aircraft design and operations, making air transport one of the safest transport modes. EU-funded research has substantially contributed to this outcome. Nevertheless, new risks must be pro-actively identified and mitigated in continuous efforts to maintain the excellent records Europe has achieved over the last decades. This requires introduction of whole range of new system concepts, products and operational practices bringing significant new challenges for the stakeholders and for the European Aviation Safety Agency. The actions will contribute to enhanced level of safety to sustain public's trustworthiness of aviation services. They will bring measurable contribution to reach the objective of having less than one accident per 10 million commercial aircraft flights by 2050. They deliver more holistic approaches to aviation safety that enables higher performance, better regulation and higher resilience with lower levels of complexity and costs.