International protection of refugees in a comparative perspective Proposals should examine the processes and content of the emerging international protection system, e.g. following the United Nations commitment for the adoption of a global asylum compact as well as its implementation in comparative perspective, with special focus on the EU’s role and engagement. They should examine how sharing responsibilities, transferring skills and capabilities, can be organised as well as the compatibility of the emerging global asylum regime with international law, including international conventions on refugees and human rights. The EU arrangements with refugees' origin and transit countries should be assessed. Proposals should advise on the future development of asylum policies and their implementation both globally and within the EU, also addressing issues around both gender issues and equality. They should include comparative assessment of existing legal responses to protection needs and explore future options and their compatibility with international refugee law, with a view to also identifying durable solutions. Particular attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups such as minors, unaccompanied or with their families, including from all forms of abuse and exploitation, and women and girls from gender-based violence and discrimination. International cooperation is encouraged, in particular with Canada, Brazil, South Africa and Jordan, as well as relevant international organisations. Furthermore, the involvement of refugee and migrant scientists and scholars from relevant disciplines is strongly encouraged.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU in the order of EUR 3 million would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. While policy areas such as development or trade benefit from global governance structures, a global refugee governance regime is still in its infancy. The challenge is to safeguard international law standards on the treatment of asylum seekers and internally displaced persons, address imbalances in sharing responsibilities, and ensure the EU plays a key role globally while also aligning the reform of its common asylum system to feed into the emerging regime of global asylum governance. The action will significantly advance the knowledge base on global migration and asylum governance by evaluating the process, discourses and outcomes of the planned compact on refugees. The action will assist European policymakers with identifying suitable strategies for engagement in the process leading to the implementation of the global refugee compact. They will also inform the EU's reform process of its common asylum system.