Strengthening racial, ethnic and religious equality High levels of racism, xenophobia, as well as institutionalised or structural discrimination are linked to inequality and shape social and economic outcomes of individuals from minority backgrounds. They also have negative effects on security, quality of life and social cohesion.Proposals should analyse the working, learning, living, environmental, health and social care conditions of people from minority or migrant descent in the EU and other countries involved in the study, with the aim of countering institutional racism in both the provision of and access to basic services as well as in access to the job market or education. They should analyse and illustrate examples of the relation between structural inequalities and structural discrimination. The analysis may include comparisons with other structurally similar groups within the same and in other countries. An analysis of existing anti-racist and anti-discrimination legislation is desirable, with a view to identifying ways in which these might be strengthened.Proposals should investigate minorities’ experience of discrimination and how the latter is generated, also by comparative research. Proposals may also document their strategies, achievements and struggles and how their knowledge can enrich policy and research and improve public awareness.Proposals should focus on various manifestations of racism and xenophobia, including one or more among anti-Black, anti-migrant, anti-Muslim, antisemitism, anti-Gypsyism. In doing so, they should take into account national specificities and intersectionality with gender/sexuality, religion, disability and other dimensions of discrimination. Proposals may also include analyses of how the COVID-19 pandemic differentially impacted such groups, aggravating already existing marginalisation.