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Effective Random Methods in Discrete Mathematics

Objective

The probabilistic method, pioneered by Paul Erdős, can show the existence of combinatorial objects without hinting how to construct them effectively. Recent developments concerning the constructive version of Lovász Local Lemma (LLL) showed how to modify the
probabilistic method to make it effective. This proposal lists four research directions in analysis, combinatorics, and cryptography, where this method opened new possibilities to go beyond our present knowledge.
1. The measurable version of LLL is the question whether the object, guaranteed by LLL, can additionally be measurable? In some special cases the answer is in the affirmative. What are the constraints which guarantee measurability, and when is it impossible to achieve this? Results are relevant for classical problems of measure group theory.
2. A novel approach improving the celebrated sunflower lemma also uses effective probabilistic tools. We will use a similar approach to improve the best estimates for multicolor Ramsey numbers, Schur numbers, and to explore a number of other classical problems.
3. Several new phenomena arise in extremal graphs when either the vertices or the edges are linearly ordered. To investigate them we use methods from effective probabilistic sampling. The answers would be relevant in discrete geometry, algorithm design, etc.
4. An emerging phenomenon in certain cryptographic primitives including secret sharing will be addressed: relaxing the strict requirements of correctness by allowing negligible errors can lead to significant improvement in efficiency. It is a direct consequence of the mostly unknown structure of the boundary of the entropy region. Using tools and results from the other parts of the project we will explore this boundary giving hints for why, and tools for where and when such efficiency gaps might occur.

Coordinator

RENYI ALFRED MATEMATIKAI KUTATOINTEZET
Net EU contribution
€ 2 019 035,00
Address
Realtanoda Street 13-15
1053 Budapest
Hungary

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Region
Közép-Magyarország Budapest Budapest
Activity type
Other
Other funding
€ 2 019 035,00