Final Activity Report Summary - BIND (Biology of Neurodegenerative Diseases Research) The aim in the program has been to provide first-class training for our PhD fellows, serve as a source of experts for academic research, clinic, and industry, and emphasise international connections and mobility. Kuopio neuroscience community has established an active research collaboration in the biology of neurodegeneration and training of postdoctoral fellows and PhD-fellows. In this program over 20 senior investigators join their expertise to capitalize the benefits of synergy in methodology, infrastructure, data sharing, and research training. All together nine ESR fellows have taken part into the BiND program, six fellows full 36 months and 3 fellows shorter periods. The research topics of the ESRs were as follows: 1. Alina Solomon, Cholesterol and late-life cognition. An epidemiological and clinical approach. 2. Gabriela Spulber, Different automated methods for analysis of MRI data in brain Imaging in Alzheimer's disease research. 3. Nick Hayward, MRI of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in rodent models of traumatic brain injury, stroke and epileptogenesis. 4. Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Angiogenesis in epilepsy. 5. Lakshman Kumar Puli, Role of immunomodulators in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. 6. Jayashree Viswanathan, Genetic and Functional Characterisation of novel risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. 7. Ashish Kumar Shah, Bone marrow derived cells in Alzheimer's disease.