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Development of novel SOlid MAterials for high power Li polymer BATteries (SOMABAT). Recyclability of components

Final Report Summary - SOMABAT (Development of novel SOlid MAterials for high power Li polymer BATteries (SOMABAT). Recyclability of components.)

Executive Summary:
This document contains “Final publishable report”. It is composed by a summary description of project context and objectives of the project, the main results achieved during the 3 years project life and a summary of dissemination activities and exploitable results identified.

Project Context and Objectives:
SOMABAT aims to develop more environmental friendly, safer and better performing high power Li polymer battery by the development of novel breakthrough recyclable solid materials to be used as anode, cathode and solid polymer electrolyte, new alternatives to recycle the different components of the battery and cycle life analysis.
This challenge will be achieved by using new low-cost synthesis and processing methods in which it is possible to tailor the different properties of the materials. Development of different novel synthetic and recyclable materials based carbon based hybrid materials, novel LiFePO4 and LiFeMnPO4 based nanocomposite cathode with a conductive polymers or carbons, and highly conductive electrolyte membranes with porous architecture based on fluorinated matrices with nanosized particles and others based on a series of polyphosphates and polyphosphonates polymers will respond to the very ambitious challenge of adequate energy density, lifetime and safety.
An assessment and test of the potential recyclability and revalorisation of the battery components developed and LCA of the cell will allow the development of a more environmental friendly Li polymer battery in which 50 % weight of the battery will be recyclable.

Project Results:

During the first year of the project, in WP1 the technical specifications of components of the battery and battery itself were evaluated and additional legislation and regulations were also studied. The state of the art, the potential actual market, legislation and study of cost of this type of batteries were determined. An indepth study about the standardisation and legislation concerning Lithium Polymer batteries for use in electric vehicles were performed.
In WP2 Development of synthetic and recyclable materials has been performed. As main results obtained can be added PVdF-HFP based polymer membrane with surfactants as plasticizer with high electrochemical stability at high voltages, C/C composites based of graphite and carbon xerogels as an additive in which reversible capacity of the anode has been increasing improving the stabililty of this component. Concerning, LFP based cathode materials, cost reduction of LFP materials development has been achieved and LFMP compound showing higher energy density compared to LFP thanks to its higher operating voltage has been obtained.
In WP3, Design, Development and Modeling of Li polymer battery, the scalability of the materials has been proved by stacking electrode/membrane pouch cell design and large size automotive format and smaller pouch type cells for pack integration. Additionally, battery management for lithium battery packs with up to 16 cells in series connection has been developed. The system is able to monitor the pack parameters up to a single cell precision, manage and monitor the charge and discharge of the battery pack, guarantee a safe exploitation of the battery pack under the conditions that the system (CMU, battery pack, load, charger, wiring) is configured correctly (both hardware and software wise). The developed cells and BMS were assembled to have the final battery pack. In this WP, multiscale battery model has also been developed.
In WP4, recyclability of the developed battery has been tested. A general flow chart for recycling of Li-Ion batteries has been drafted by using following steps of recycling procedure: disassembly of battery to cell level, vacuum-thermal pretreatment to deactivate the cell and to extract all organic components, mechanical separation and classification of main downstream products, pyrometallurgical treatment of active cell mass to recover the strategic metals. Starting from the mass balance it is possible to confirm that the achievement of Recycling rate of 58% only if membrane/polymers are recovered.
Finally, in WP5, sustainability assessment of Li polymer battery has been performed. The LCA analysis shows that the total environmental impact of the life cycle of the Somabat battery is mainly due to the European electricity production. This obviously depends on the kind of electricity used to charge the battery. Treatment and recycling of batteries at end of life, despite the recycling of certain products, have a significant environmental impact.

Potential Impact:
Total of 53 dissemination activities has been performed along the three years project life. Most of the activities performed were oral communications, and poster presentation in Conferences or Fairs. Additionally, two workshops were organized in the frame of the project in M18 and M36, in Timisoara and Valencia, respectively. Press released were also launched when a special event was raised. And also, SOMABAT project was showed in the media as a briefings interviews and TV clips.
18 exploitable results have been identified in the project coming from the different research areas involved in SOMABAT project: battery materials, battery integration and sustainability activities. The SOMABAT results can allow new markets to appear, redefining business roles and creating new economic models. These goals can only be achieved by gathering a strong, industry-led consortium of the leading operators, vendors, SME, and research organisations, with the determination, skills and critical mass to create cross-industry consensus and to drive standardisation.

List of Websites:
Dra. Mayte Gil Agustí
Instituto Tecnológico de la Energía
Av. Juan de la Cierva, 24
Parque Tecnológico de Valencia
46980 Paterna (Valencia)