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Catalytic Processes for Innovative Technology Applications

Final Report Summary - CAPITA (Catalytic Processes for Innovative Technology Applications)

Executive Summary:

Overall conclusions
CAPITA ERANET HAS SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED ITS FIRST CALL AND HAS A SECOND CALL READY FOR LAUNCH. ALL PARTNERS HAVE JOINTLY ACTED TO ACCOMPLISH THE INITIAL OBJECTIVES. THIS RESULTED IN A FRAMEWORK OF COOPERATION FOR THE PROGRAMME MANAGING ORGANISATIONS AND THE RESEARCHERS OF THE FIELD.

The impact of CAPITA, as expressed by the 1st CAPITA Joint Call, the Joint Education activities and other dissemination actions, reveals desire for a European catalysis network.
The CAPITA partners have developed strong links amongst each other, and have focused their future plans in teaming up with Euro-chemistry, creating a pan-European Programme on Catalysis, based on the framework that CAPITA developed, with the aim of strengthening their links with industry and multiple R&D funding agencies.
CAPITA will utilize the international synergy for research in chemistry, to express the potential of bringing together national research organisations and funding agencies to establish joint strategies for collaborative research and improves funding mechanisms for European research in chemistry.

Core partners of the CAPITA ERANET, together with new partners will explore options for continuing the CAPITA activities, such as joint transnational calls and an advanced framework for training of PhD students, Post-Docs and industrial staff in innovative applied catalysis for the implementation of the principles of sustainable chemistry. Our first joint priority is now to launch a second call for international project proposals, for which all preparations are done.

We will make efforts to stimulate the knowledge dissemination and use of any foreground coming from the projects that have commenced beginning 2013.

Project Context and Objectives:
CAPITA ERA-NET AND ITS OBJECTIVES
CAPITA ERA-NET has the ambition to better structure and enhance the coordination and cooperation between all innovation-driven research programmes in the ERA of Applied Catalysis and related sustainable chemical research. It aims to build on the achievements and network of the previous initiative ACENET. It will work closely with the ETP SusChem and the European Research Institute of Catalysis (ERIC). To achieve a more sustainable industrial society in the next decades requires the development of new clean and affordable catalytic technologies for the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Indeed, ETP SusChem has identified catalysis as the most important technology for process design. A strong science and engineering base in applied catalysis is thus essential to maintain Europe’s strength in this critical industrial sector and CAPITA aims to contribute to this.

This ambition is realised by pursuing the following objectives:

• SYSTEMATIC EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AND GOOD PRACTICES on existing research programmes in the field of Applied Catalysis concerning their content and objectives, used selection and monitoring processes, dissemination of knowledge, utilisation of research results and cooperation mechanisms between universities, research organisations, industries and SMEs involved in these programmes;

• COMMON AGREEMENT ON AND JOINT IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE JOINT PROCESSES, MECHANISMS AND PROCEDURES to manage the whole “chain of knowledge” covered by applied catalysis research programmes (i.e. from identifying relevant research priorities to stimulate the translation of the research results into (industrial) innovations);

• COORDINATION, COOPERATION AND JOINT PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING RESEARCH PROGRAMMES, amongst others by case studies in which programme managers of different organisations cooperate, focussed on the establishment of complete, joint management procedures, improved dissemination of generated knowledge between programmes and industrial users and implementation of the solutions obtained by the case studies for possible barriers to co-operation;

• FORMULATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW TRANSNATIONAL PAN-EUROPEAN RESEARCH PROGRAMMES OR INITIATIVES, the content of which is based on the European Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) developed in the European Technology Platform (ETP) on Sustainable Chemistry; the management is performed according to procedures jointly defined by the ERA-NET partners and the funding is by consortia of stakeholders which were involved in the development of the SRA;

• DEVELOPMENT OF THE NECESSARY TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES FOR COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION EXCHANGE to reach the above-mentioned objectives;

• DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK FOR A EUROPEAN EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMME that addresses strategic needs on all academic levels, to boost the standards of professionals in this area, to improve the fit between employer demand and job-market supply and to enhance student, researcher and job market mobility. The European education and training programme will address both students and researchers with an interest in an academic career or an industrial or entrepreneurial career.

Project Results:
Work performed, results achieved
CAPITA ERA-NET HAS BEEN FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION SINCE 1 JANUARY 2012 FOR A FUNDING PERIOD OF FOUR YEARS. IT STARTED ITS ACTIVITIES ON 2 FEBRUARY 1012. AT THE KICK-OFF MEETING THE FOUNDATIONS WERE DISCUSSED FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE WORK PACKAGES.

For achieving its ambition and objectives the CAPITA ERA-NET partners divided the work in five different work packages:

Main examples of successful activities carried out within these work packages include:

• Mapping and coordinating the research priorities of national agencies towards a roadmap for Applied Catalysis in Europe
• Launch of a jointly coordinated, transnational call for project proposals in Applied Catalysis
• Developing a coherent European training and education programme ready for implementation
• Establishing all prerequisites for the launch of a second coordinated transnational call.

Potential Impact:
Main deliverables and their impact
APPLIED CATALYSIS IS AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH FIELD WHICH COMBINES EXCITING, HIGH-QUALITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WITH A UNIQUE POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTE TO ECONOMICALLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES.

Although we can build on the work done by ACENET, at present there is unsufficient coordination between the catalysis and the closely related sustainable chemistry research programmes of the EU member states, although many of them, acting individually and recognising the importance of the topic, have made catalysis a strong feature in their chemistry, bioscience, and materials and engineering research programmes.

The structured work programme includes development of dedicated procedures and systems for the coordination and integration of national programmatic applied research activities, identification of programmes and topics most relevant with respect to innovative potential for Europe, the creation of new, jointly managed, transnational programmes amongst others focussed on innovation, encouraging co-operation and the co-ordination of cross-border facilitative activities, e.g. education and training, and research infrastructure development.

The set goals are:

• Initiation of joint transnational research activities and funding initiatives in Applied Catalysis
• Establishment of a joint European framework for education and training in Applied Catalysis
• Development of the necessary tools and activities for communication and information exchange

Through its links with end-users the CAPITA ERA-NET creates an effective system for encouraging commercial exploitation of research output, since it builds on a pan-European scale from the experience of successful national initiatives in The Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom. These initiatives have combined the knowledge and experience of academics, industrial end-users and funding bodies to create successful innovation-driven strategic research programmes.

Work performed, results achieved
CAPITA ERA-NET HAS BEEN FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION SINCE 1 JANUARY 2012 FOR A FUNDING PERIOD OF FOUR YEARS. IT STARTED ITS ACTIVITIES ON 2 FEBRUARY 1012. AT THE KICK-OFF MEETING THE FOUNDATIONS WERE DISCUSSED FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE WORK PACKAGES.

For achieving its ambition and objectives the CAPITA ERA-NET partners divided the work in five different work packages:


Main examples of successful activities carried out within these work packages include:

• Mapping and coordinating the research priorities of national agencies towards a roadmap for Applied Catalysis in Europe
• Launch of a jointly coordinated, transnational call for project proposals in Applied Catalysis
• Developing a coherent European training and education programme ready for implementation
• Establishing all prerequisites for the launch of a second coordinated transnational call.

THE CAPITA ROADMAP
In order to address outstanding challenges in catalytic and process technological research via the activities within the ERA-NET CAPITA and beyond, the European and global progress in RTD have been analysed, and interim and long-term visions developed. The roadmap should serve as a guide, indicating the requirements in applied catalysis and process technology which are vital for addressing societal and industrial needs in energy, in environmental concerns for transportation and the quality of life and in sustainable chemistry for clean processes for fine chemicals and industrial intermediates and the switch from petrochemical feeds to recycled or renewable feeds.
Several methods exist for developing roadmaps and they differ a lot concerning the numbers of involved persons and the working hours needed. Nevertheless, the general procedure remains the same. The key questions reflect the actual situation and the future aspirations, identify the barriers to progress and finally lead to the solutions and the way forward. The CAPITA’s Advisory Group on Innovation and Technology was involved in the roadmapping activities that were especially discussed during two workshops (Paris May 2013 and Brussels February 2014). The following descriptions are also based on documents provided by scientific organisations or activities and by key persons of funding organisations and researchers.

THE CAPITA ROADMAP: GENERAL CONTEXT AND CONTENT
Catalytic processes were the key enabling technology of the 20th century and continue to be in the dawn of the 21th century. Thanks to the application of catalysis, human society has had access to fertilisers, fuels, feedstocks, pharmaceuticals, plastics and polymers, agrichemicals, dyestuffs, in fact just about everything produced by the industries using chemistry, or used in their operations. Applied catalysis is also central to control of pollution, most notably in treating exhaust gases from petrol powered road vehicles.
The economic impact of catalysis is quite staggering. The market for catalysts is estimated at about 15 billion Euro per annum, but the value of the goods and services offered by catalysis are >1000 times greater, approaching 20 trillion Euro or 40% of global GDP.
The case for the importance of catalysis continuing into the 21st century is also compelling. Putting industrial society onto a more sustainable footing will require a range of new clean catalytic platform technologies for the production of liquid fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and materials, using recycled or renewable raw materials and closed cycle, low hazard manufacturing systems. Catalysis is one of the most important technologies for new process design and research. Catalysis is also fundamental to the design and operation of fuel cells, to certain energy storage systems, and to emergent ideas like distributing the manufacture of chemicals to the point of use. It is evident that the organisations that create and exploit the new catalytic platform technologies will not only make a major contribution to sustainable development, but will also create a brand new business.
That new catalytic processes have the potential to become disruptive new platform technologies is not just because of the change in feedstock and market situation. New approaches to process technology, especially process intensification using structured reactors and microreactors, are part of a paradigm shift in chemical processing, where the plant can be optimised around the chemistry, rather than making the chemistry fit within the scope of plant availability. The potential of catalysis to control the rate and direction of a chemical reaction down to the finest levels of the purity and structure of a product (even its stereochemistry) fits precisely with this approach. Similarly, many of the developments in nanotechnology are starting to bring a precision to the design of catalysts themselves, which will optimise the precision and control within a chemical process far beyond the levels currently reached in most catalytic technologies, and will also open routes to new process possibilities. The 21st century’s need for new chemical manufacturing technology will be satisfied by a revolution in process technology.

THE FIRST CAPITA CALL
In June 2013, CAPITA launched its first transnational call for project proposals in Applied Catalysis, entitled: ‘Innovative catalysis for the monetization of low value carbon’.

The call was aimed at stimulating European public-private collaborative research and encouraged national organisations to work together in key areas of catalysis-related science and technology. Participation of industry in the proposed projects was a prerequisite. The call was financed by five National Funding Agencies and Ministries, without co-funding from the European Union. In total, M€4 was available for funding transnational research projects. The ‘juste-retour’ principle was adapted for the transnational funding, i.e. each of the participating organisations would fund its own national participants in the research projects.

By the end of the submission period, in early September 2013, CAPITA received eleven eligible proposals. Each of these proposals was evaluated by at least three external international experts in Applied Catalysis, before being reviewed in October by the CAPITA Call Steering Committee, a panel composed of academic and industrial research scientists and research programme managers delegated by all the CAPITA participating countries. The committee recommended projects for funding based on three criteria:

• quality and novelty of the science,
• the technical and industrial potential, and
• the expected impact of the project, concerning the result commercialisation and the added value of the transnational cooperation.

Based on the list of the CAPITA Executive Board recommendations, the ministries and funding agencies participating in the call finally decided to award funding to three transnational project consortia. With these projects, CAPITA utilizes M€ 2.2 of the call budget and another k€ 120 of private funding.

Joint elaboration and preparatory activities resulted in a ready-to-launch second call for proposals (theme selection, evaluation first call for proposals). CAPITA will continue its endeavours after funding from the EC has ended and aspires to launch the second call in collaboration with Euro-chemistry and possibly interested other partners. Euro-chemistry is a European synergy for research in chemistry, bringing together national research organisations and funding agencies to establish joint strategies for collaborative research and improves funding mechanisms for European research in chemistry.


THE CAPITA PROJECTS
The three granted international projects cover a number of catalysis-related disciplines and have great potential for innovation and industrial exploitation. All projects commenced beginning 2013 and are at present generating output.

Title of research: Valorization of CARbon DIOxide containing industrial streams via non-conventional catalytic systems and SOLarized processes
Acronym: CARDIOSOL

Project Summary
The CARDIOSOL project is an integrated approach aiming at efficient and renewable CO2 conversion into bio-derived syngas to be subsequently converted to high added value products. Current chemical approaches for CO2 reuse do not contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions to an appreciable extent. A different approach is taken in the current project by considering a reaction of converting CO2 to bio-derived syngas, using renewable energy (solar) and biogas produced from residual biomass fractions building upon key expertises of the partners and early pioneering efforts worldwide. There is thus a double positive effect; to reduce further carbon-footprint and promote the introduction of bioeconomy (and associated positive effect on GHG emissions), by converting by-products to high added-value chemicals, that can be in general generated from syngas, via established/industrially relevant processes. The project will consider and evaluate several biogas feedstocks, derived from organic raw materials residual fractions, define necessary steps for their pre-conditioning and develop/evaluate novel catalytic systems and structured reactor designs that will allow methane CO2 reforming for syngas generation, eventually assisted by steam/oxygen addition to the feed.

In the framework of the present undertaking, it is expected that in one hand the utilization of readily available and abundant solar-heat, via suitable Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, and in the other hand the application of novel catalytic systems and reactor concepts based on wall-flow monolithic structures, facilitated by periodic carbon-removal/regeneration strategies, can provide feasible and efficient means of overcoming the main challenges associated with efficient biogas reforming, alongside with the adoption of steam (and, if required, oxygen in small amounts for coke suppression or fast start-up requirements). CSP technologies will be investigated and identified based on solar simulator, able to emulate CSP conditions (e.g. parabolic dish, solar tower), aided studies to be performed at APTL/CERTH. The materials developed and concepts qualified will be investigated at lab-scale conditions, so that the in-principle promising strategies will be defined. The promising results produced will provide input to a comprehensive techno-economic assessment and define the next steps for the mid-term scaling up and exploitation of the most promising approach(es), developed within the framework of CARDIOSOL, taking also into account the environmental footprint (LCA) potential.

The final product/conclusion of the work to be performed within the framework of the activities of the CARDIOSOL project will be the development and initial operation of a small-scale (up to 5kWth) simple prototype of a dimension comparable to a single dish unit. This prototype will provide the basis for the continuation and enhancement of the cooperation initiated within the CARDIOSOL project. It will also facilitate the identification of the main challenges that need to be resolved in order to proceed with the step-by-step short-term implementation of the proposed concept at an industrial relevant scale (i.e. development of a complete single dish commercial unit and in field prolonged demonstration of a park of such solar reformers).

Project partner institutions:

Coordinator of the Project: Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory/Chemical Process & Energy Resources Institute/Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (APTL/CERTH), Thessaloniki , Greece

Chemical Engineering Department/Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Thessaloniki , Greece

Politecnico di Torino (POLITO), Torino, Italy

CHEMTEX ITALIA SPA (CTXI), Tortona, Italy

Hysytech S.R.L. (HST), Torino, Italy


Associated partners:

MOTOR OIL HELLAS CORINTH REFINERIES S.A. (MOTOR OIL), Athens, Greece

AVIN OIL S.A. (AVIN), Athens, Greece

CORAL S.A. (CORAL), Athens, Greece


e-mail address of the coordinator: Dr George Skevis gskevis@cperi.certh.gr

Title of research: CO2 and H2O toward methanol synthesis at atmospheric pressure in co-ionic electrochemical membrane reactors
Acronym: GREEN MEOH

Project Summary
A novel process for methanol synthesis at atmospheric pressure from CO2 and H2O through the use of co-ionic conducting ceramic Electrochemical Membrane Reactors (EMRs) is proposed. These reactors consist of a dense co-ionic ceramic membrane and two porous electrodes (Figure 1). One of the electrodes (the anode) will be exposed to a steam and/or H2 containing gas, which will provide the protons to be transported through the membrane to the active sites of the second electrode (the cathode). The cathode will be exposed to a mixture of CO/CO2, where the methanol synthesis is going to take place.

The two electrodes will be connected either to a voltmeter (mode a), or to an external power source (mode b), or even to an external resistive load (mode c). In mode (a), the open-circuit voltage will provide information on the difference of chemical potential of the conductive species between the two electrodes, allowing the investigation of the reaction mechanism of methanol synthesis. By application of an electrical current (mode b), the EMR will act as an electrochemical hydrogen/oxygen pump (H+ will be pumped to the cathode and O2- will be pumped away from the cathode). Under this mode of operation, controlled H+ fluxes to the cathodic catalyst are expected to create high surface hydrogen activities, which in turn will force equilibrium to the right, bypassing the conventional necessity for high pressures. At the same time O2- pumping from the cathode is expected to activate the C=O bond of the adsorbed COX species, and thus accelerate methanol synthesis. The activation of the C=O bond will also be attempted through the application of alternating currents, in an effort to maintain the necessary H+ supply to the cathode, while minimizing the O2- withdrawal from the cathode, for co-ionic conductors of sufficient H+ mobility and minimal O2- one, and at atmospheres which enhance the first and restricts the second. Finally, in the fuel cell mode (c) chemical energy of the cathodic methanol synthesis is expected to be converted directly into electrical energy, allowing the co-ionic EMR to operate as a cogenerative SOFC.

In the context of mode (b) and the simultaneous electrochemical COx hydrogenation and C=O bond activation, the optimization of the co-ionic conductor and the EMR operation conditions will tend to maximize the H+ transport number and optimize the corresponding O2- one. In this direction, despite the expected difficulty to activate CO2, and compose an appropriate catalyst for this purpose, CO2 not only comprises a cheap and abundant raw material for methanol synthesis but its presence might also be essential for the effective control and optimization of the proposed electrochemical process. Furthermore, mode (b) concept allows the direct utilization of steam as a hydrogen source, for COX hydrogenation, since it obtains the simultaneous steam electrolysis and methanol synthesis, in the same reactor.

The development of specialized co-ionic ceramic conductors, efficient electrode-catalyst composites and the building of the EMRs will be the key objectives of the project.

Project partners institutions:

Coordinator of the Project: University of Castilla-La-Mancha (UCLM)
Person in Charge: Dr. Fernando Dorado
Department of Chemical Engineering. Faculty of Chemistry.
Spain

Chemical Process & Energy Resources Institute (CPERI) / Centre for Research & Technology Hellas (CERTH)
Person in Charge: Dr. Michael Stoukides
Greece

Van’t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences. University of Amsterdam (UvA)
Person in Charge: Dr. N. Raveendran Shiju
The Netherlands

Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada. School of Technological Applications (TEISTE)
Person in Charge: Dr. Vassilis Stathopoulos
Greece

Associated partners:

Hellenic Petroleum Renewable Energy Sources S.A. (HELPE RES)
Person in Charge: Dr. Spyros Kiartzis
Greece

Graphenano Technologies (GRAPHENANO)
Person in Charge: Dr. Agustín Garrido
Spain

Delft Solids Solutions B.V. (DSS)
Person in Charge: Dr. Johan Groen
The Netherlands

e-mail address of the coordinator: Fernando.Dorado@uclm.es

Figure 1. Theoretical concept of the project. Operational modes of the co-ionic EMR.

Title of research WAste bio-feedstocks hydro-Valorisation processES
Acronym: WAVES

Project Summary
Research efforts are focused lately on the valorization of waste bio-feedstocks towards the selective production (via hydroconversion) of specific cuts of higher value, such as diesel and jet fuels. Thus, hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long chain paraffins over novel, bifunctional catalysts are receiving increasing attention. Moreover, hydrotreating/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) concepts are known promising approaches for waste oils’ (e.g. bio-oil) upgrading.
The envisaged WAVES project aims on exploring new and emerging hydroprocessing (hydro-isomerization, hydrocracking or hydrodeoxygenation) technologies in heterogeneous catalysis towards the production of aviation and road transportation fuels (i.e. gasoline, kerosene, diesel) from waste bio-feedstocks (vegetable oil, F-T waxes, algae oil and bio-oil) via development of new and selective catalysts with tuneable properties (porosity, crystallinity and acidity). Specifically, the suggested catalysts’ pore structure will be tailored by the newest concepts of hierarchical materials design, or by using nanotubular structures fixed on a supporting structure; such structures will be functionalized with metal nanostructures or tuned acid sites. Several catalyst supports (mesoporous alumina, silica–alumina and hierarchical mesoporous zeolites), will be developed and will be further promoted with noble (Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru) and/or transition metals (e.g. Ni, Cu, Co) for the hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of bio-derived feedstock of different origin or for the HDO of bio-derived oils. Advanced characterization of candidate catalysts, combined with evaluation results in high pressure fixed bed or batch microreactors, will facilitate tuning of their physicochemical properties for optimal performance. Fundamental modeling and process optimization will allow determining kinetic parameters and elucidating the dominant reaction pathways during the hydroconversion of these low cost feedstocks to various ranges of hydrocarbon fuels. Key feedback will be provided towards the synthesis and optimization of novel catalyst generations and unique insights will be obtained for the development of cutting-edge industrial conversion technologies. The final target is to develop a catalytic approach for bio-fuel production, ready to be incorporated in existing refineries.

Project partners institutions:

Dr Angelos A. Lappas (Coordinator)
Laboratory of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons
Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute Centre for Research and Technology Hellas -CPERI/CERTH
Thessaloniki, GREECE

Prof. Javier García Martínez
Molecular Nanotechnology Lab
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Alicante,
Alicante, SPAIN

Prof. Bert M. Weckhuysen
Utrecht University
Utrecht, THE NETHERLANDS

Prof. Guy B. Marin
Ghent University,
Ghent, BELGIUM

Prof. Gabriele Centi
Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM)
& University of Messina
Firenze, ITALY

Iaquaniello Gaetano
Processi Innovativi
L'Aquila, ITALY

Associated partners:

Mr. Michalis Pachnos
MOTOR OIL HELLAS CORINTH REFINERIES S.A.
MAROUSSI, ATHENS, Greece

Mr. Ioannis Raptakis
AVIN OIL S.A.
MAROUSSI, ATHENS, Greece

Mr. Sarantis Dimitriou
CORAL S.A.
MAROUSSI, ATHENS, Greece

e-mail address of the coordinator: angel@cperi.certh.gr

Figure 1. a) Key-lock (with respect to pore-mouth) mechanism in hierarchical zeolites for the selective upgrading of hydrocarbons, cartoon of b) the metal nanoparticles in desilicated zeolite or c) Ru in TiO2 nanotube decorated surfaces to be prepared in the project

CAPITA EDUCATION PROGRAMME
A mapping of the educational programs in catalysis in nine EU countries was recently achieved in the ERANET-ACENET project. CAPITA aimed to integrate the results of ACENET with an up-to-date survey among the partners who were active in ACENET and a more detailed enquiry with the new ones, in order to produce a more complete map of educational programs throughout Europe.

This process will bring to the knowledge of all relevant (sub) disciplines and, therefore, to a structured set of educational modules on coherent topics that may build a course which can be implemented through Europe by top educators. From such basic program subsets can be selected for focused education in particular environments so to produce young graduated or PhD students or industrial staff with a common basis of understanding of processes and catalysts.
Such well-developed and largely-accepted educational programme and the large offer through Europe will penetrate the system and may be promoter of jointly accredited European Scientific Degrees. Masters courses are the most likely to be established that may interest several countries.

CAPITA aims at developing in the next two years an advanced framework for training of PhD students, Post-Docs and industrial staff in innovative applied catalysis for the implementation of the principles of sustainable chemistry. Such training will take place either at the Universities of the CAPITA partner Countries or special events will be organized that will gather participants from all partners and outside the consortium.
In particular Schools (Summer or Winter Schools) will be organized that will focus on specific topics of large interest for the partners and may offer top-level teaching by Scientists and Technologists.

Four areas are presently selected for such training activities, others can be added based on the needs expressed. The selected areas can be categorized as:

• Synthesis and characterization of catalytic nanomaterials with application in thermal and photocatalytic processes.
• Biomass conversion into fuels and chemicals (commodities and specialty) with implementation of the Biorefinery concept.
• Utilization of solar energy for water splitting and for driving high energy processes such as the conversion of CO2 into fuels.
• Monetization of low carbon chains such as those produced in the petrochemical industry (C2-C4 moieties).

The content for some of the courses will include lectures reviewing best practices and methods for valorizing research results for Innovation leading to new entrepreneurship.

COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION EXCHANGE
During the two and a half active years of the CAPITA-ERANET consortium, CAPITA promoted its visibility through several channels; the CAPITA website was developed for the general public, but also served as an information tool during specific activities. Several brochures, newsletters, leaflets and a poster were developed to promote CAPITA activities during symposia and meetings. These emphasized the importance of CAPITA in general or reported on successes during the CAPITA project.
A number of meetings were organised by CAPITA:

• During the kick-off meeting held in The Hague on February 2th, 2012 presentations highlighted the network and the strategic position, including the perspective of the European research institute on catalysis and the Dechema roadmap.

• European catalysis strategy and cooperation and International collaboration, the First CAPITA European catalysis meeting, 16 May 2013, Paris. Thirty international researchers and representatives of research foundations in chemistry met at Paris, France to discuss the strategy for CAPITA and its role in bringing together international cooperation in catalysis.

• Topics in European Catalysis, the Second CAPITA European catalysis meeting, 27 & 28 february, Brussels, bringing together 30 experts from 9 different countries to set a topic for the second CAPITA transnational call in catalysis. The meeting led to good consensus on the thematic approach of a second call. CAPITA aims to launch this call in near future.

For internal communication purposes, MS SharePoint was set up, which can be used to share information, such as meeting items and minutes, reports submitted to the European Commission, contact information from CAPITA partners/members, etc.

For the first call for proposals, SharePoint was used for submission and evaluation purposes. As such, research proposals were submitted at a central location and transferred to the MS Sharepoint section.
All proposals, referee reports etc. were accessible by various authorized levels by all representatives of the participating funding agencies in this call. Applicants were satisfied with this possibility, and the online submission tool proved successful and professional.

List of Websites:
Dr LOUIS B.J. VERTEGAAL
Director Chemical & Physical Sciences Division
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research
P.O. Box 93460
2509 AL The Hague
The Netherlands

Tel: +31 (0)70 344 0709
E-mail: w.snijder@nwo.nl
Website: http://www.capitanetwork.eu