Final Report Summary - AMISS (Active and Passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging) Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS) AMISS was a knowledge exchange project to establish a collaborative network with international visibility to advance the theory and application of active and passive microwave imaging systems.The project brought together seven partners from three EU and Associated countries and from three Third countries:1. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Italy (Coordinator) (EU Member);2. Technische Universiteit Delft (TUDELFT), The Netherlands (EU Member);3. Yildiz Technical University (YTU), Turkey (EU Associated Country);4. Usikov Institute for Radio-physics and Electronics (IRE), Ukraine (Third Country);5. State Research Centre of Superconductive Radioelectronics “Iceberg” (SRC), Ukraine (Third Country);6. Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU), Russia (Third Country);7. University of Sao Paulo, (USP), Brazil (Third Country).AMISS’ objectiveThe overall objective of the project was to develop, characterize, and analyse the performance of new systems, sensors, and configurations for active and passive microwave imaging.This was carried out in two research lines and the effectiveness of research results was tested in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for subsurface sensing and infrastructure diagnostics and in security applications.Work programmeAMISS was organized in four work packages. Work Package 1 dealt with Microwave and Millimetre wave imaging systems for security. In this package antenna arrays, through wall imaging systems, concealed weapon detection, and on body concealed object detection systems were designed. In work package 2 GPR technologies for subsurface sensing and critical infrastructure monitoring were developed. Antenna arrays and inpulse generators were developed, as well as systems for clutter reduction and holographic radar for shallow applications. GPR systems were applied in geophysical, archaeological, and non-destructive testing domains. Data processing was developed through linear and non-linear imaging and inversion methods and experimentally validated at the USP test site. Work package 3 investigated radar technologies for remote detection and registration of vital signs. In this package antennas and systems for biological radar scans were developed together with data processing techniques. These were experimentally tested under controlled conditions. Work package 4 was concerned with overall project management.AchievementsThe AMISS work packages have been executed through highly successful visits lasting between one week and 8 months. Visitors gave 8 research seminars, one graduate course, organized two session during international conferences, edited two special issues in international peer reviewed journals, contributed to 14 journal papers, one book chapter, and more than 30 proceedings, abstracts, and presentations in more than 10 international conferences. The scientific achievements from the work packages are:1. Work Package 1 developed full holographic radar for concealed objects detection, enhanced by data processing; development, implementation, and validation of a microwave tomographic data processing for a Through-Wall-Imaging system; development, analysis, and realization of several new antennas for millimetre band applications.2. Work Package 2 developed antennas and systems for novel GPR technology and associated data processing methods for tomography, imaging, and inversion.3. Work Package 3 development and realization of bioradar prototypes with associated data processing methods; performance test analysis and defining measurement protocols for medical applicationsBenefits and outgrowthAMISS’s visits, seminars, workshops, jointly organized conference sessions, and collaborative writing of abstracts, conference proceedings, and journal papers have created various new links and contacts between the researchers from the different institutes. Participants have been able to dedicate their knowledge and expertise to obtain command of the whole chain from equipment to application, developed dedicated products and software to improve existing technologies and creating new technologies. Knowledge exchange between EU/Associated countries and Third countries has proven crucially important and has led to continuing collaboration. AMISS knowledge exchange and networking resulted in a Memorandum of Understanding between CNR and IRE and between CNR and USP; it has resulted in CNR cooperating with a Chinese entity through mediation of SRC; it has allowed AMISS partners to participate in COST Action TU1208 and for CNR in COST Action TD1301; it has motivated BMSTU and CNR to pursue further collaboration through a bilateral agreement; it has resulted in a three-year project jointly carried out by TUDelft and USP financially supported through the Federal Brazilian Science without Borders programme; furthermore IRE and YTU have expressed the intention to further develop together a GPR system in Turkey based on the one developed by IRE in the AMISS project.