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Support to security end users

Final Report Summary - ARCHIMEDES (Support to security end users)

Executive Summary:
Weak participation of end-users & operators (EU&O) in all the stages of the European security research process is jeopardising the competitiveness of new solutions & services and Europe’s security. The objective of this 3 year ARCHIMEDES project was to increase the R&I uptake. It therefore achieved the following: 1) Developed an Innovation Management methodology enabling EU&O to efficiently benefit from R&I results and promote a common innovation culture; 2) Provided a series of recommendations that presented the analysis and consolidation of the obstacles identified for innovation management and friendly funding schemes for EU&O uptake as well as sector specific operational needs in the ten field of security analysed (civil aviation security, CBRNe, urban security, innovation management, border control and border surveillance, external dimension of security, civil protection, robotics in security, critical infrastructure protection and cybercrime and cyber-terrorism); 3) Developed a manual that gives an overview of European research procedures and funding schemes and targets End-Users and Operators by outlining the process for participating in EU funding schemes; 4) Developed an End-to-End model for the development of security technologies and solutions in order to create a sustainable security market responding to the challenges identified by the new Internal Security Strategy; 5) Promoted security EU&O’ networking and a permanent public-private dialogue through the creation of a Forum and the proposal of a framework for the creation of a long-term networking platform for cooperation between the EU&Os, the supply side as well as public authorities and explore a sustainable end-to-end approach to Research and Innovation.

All these aspects of ARCHIMEDES were pursued, explored, refined and validated by specific EU&O experts during 10 sector specific roundtables held in different EU countries. A proposal for the creation of a European Network of National Organisations for Security – called “AEGIS” (Alliance for European Growth and Innovation in Security) - including End-Users, Operators, Industry, Research Institutes, Public Administrations, etc. was provided and received substantial high-level interest. Validated findings and recommendations were and will continue to be provided as input to high level EU decision makers (e.g. the EC Security Advisory Group, MEPs, Security Research Programme Committee and other networks of stakeholders such as ENISA, Frontex, Europol, etc.) for the planning of future security research activities.

ARCHIMEDES’ Partners represent all sectors of security EU&O and suppliers from across Europe. Through their broad networks they guaranteed an adequate participation of EU&O in the project’s activities and the maximum dissemination and communication possible on ARCHIMEDES.
Project Context and Objectives:
Research and Innovation (R&I) activities have a catalysing effect, responding not only to the need of the European security market but also to the more dynamic, growing and highly competitive international market, where R&I can really foster the development of a competitive European security industrial base capable of its own innovation as the essential part of a European Security In-dustrial Policy.

Despite the continuous dialogue and efforts in the frame of the European Se¬curity Research Programme (ESRP) and the Security Industrial Policy (SIP), the results of research, like in other sectors, hardly reach the market and conse¬quently weaken the ability of the European market to be competitive.

The objective of the three year ARCHIMEDES project was to increase the R&I uptake and participation of end-users & operators in security Research & Innovation programmes, support the public – private dialogue between the demand and the supply side and make European research activities more end-user friendly.

ARCHIMEDES therefore had the following objectives:

- Develop an Innovation Management methodology to provide end-users with tools, procedures and best practices on how to efficiently benefit from R&T results; also raising end-users & operators’ awareness of the need for a common culture that embraces innovation management;
- Start a sustainable process for the end-users & operators driven definition of common operational needs, early R&T demand while aligning European research agendas with Europe’s and Member States’ security priorities as defined in the EU’s External and Internal Security Strategy, and national policies;
- Enhance end-users & operators’ participation in all stages of the EU’s research activities: from the agenda-setting over the participation in projects; the definition of a legal and operational environment that facilitates the Research and Innovation uptake; the definition of testing, validation and certification procedures towards the implementation of new security solutions;
- Promote end-users & operators’ networking and the establishment of a sustained public-private dialogue among end-users & operators through the creation of a Forum for European Security End-Users & Operators which would also reinforce cooperation with the supply side and explore the establishment of a permanent and sustainable end-to-end approach to Research and Innovation.

Desk research on Innovation Management tools, procedures and best practices (e.g. Pre-Commercial Procurement; regulations and standardisation issues, etc.), and case studies in some EU countries allowed to formulate preliminary findings on Innovation Management procedures, end-users & operators’ early R&T demand and common operational needs, testing, validation and certification issues. This work provided sector specific recommendations that were explored, refined and validated with networks of end-users & operators during several roundtables held in different EU countries.

As part of its activities on WP3, ARCHIMEDES had the objective to create a Forum for End-Users and Operators (EU&Os) or more precisely, a platform for dialogue and collaboration that would improve the involvement of these key actors in the research process and work toward achieving an End-to-End Approach to Security Research. After a number of sector-specific interactive Roundtables, where numerous EU&Os were consulted and interviewed, the Consortium came to the conclusion that the online Forum (as was planned in the DoW) was not enough to bring a real change to the security market. The Forum was put in place at the beginning of the project and it proved to be very difficult to motivate EU&Os to write in this Forum and take time to use it. The EU&Os present at the ARCHIMEDES Roundtables were however very happy with the discussions and expressed their interest for the creation of a platform for dialogue and collaboration between the different stakeholders of the security market and not only EU&Os between themselves. The Consortium therefore decided to propose the creation of a European Network of National Organisations for Security, bringing together stakeholders from public authorities, public/private operators, the industry, the European Institutions, etc.

To support end-users’ interaction, 10 Roundtables were organised throughout Europe. These Roundtables consisted in focused participation of specific end users & operators actively contributing in defining the early R&I demand, share innovation management best practices and operational needs for specific sectoral security issues.

The preliminary recommendations of ARCHIMEDES on innovation management practices and early R&I needs were validated and further developed by the end-users & operators themselves during these roundtables. The Roundtables also allowed for strengthening the networking among end-users and suppliers in a Public-Private Dialogue. The EU&Os targeted by the roundtables were specifically in the following target groups:

- Border guards: enhanced efficiency of the EU external borders’ control (surveillance and check points)
- Law Enforcement officials (including police): fight against terrorism and organised crime (including forensic and intelligence)
- First responders / civil protection forces: interoperable solutions and procedures for civil protection and disaster management (floods, earthquake, etc.)
- Special forces: needs for innovative solutions to counter CBRN threats
- Fire fighters: procedures and instruments to fight massive forest fires
- Cyber Infrastructure Operators: cyber security for infrastructures including Telecom operators
- Airport operators: enhanced civil aviation security for passengers and goods (cargo)
- Metro / Rail operators: innovative measures for surface / mass transport
- Freight forwarders: supply chain security (including container security) and innovation needs of Authorised Economic Operators
- Energy operators: protection of energy infrastructure and energy supply

The different findings from the ARCHIMEDES activities draw towards the con¬clusion that the convergence of all the relevant stakeholders into the R&I cycle, from research to implementation and use, along with those engaged in stand¬ardisation and regulatory processes improves the framework conditions for uptake of innovation. Particularly, the involvement of EU&Os throughout the R&I process would also leverage and rationalise financing for R&I at a European, national and regional level. The project consortium therefore proposes an End-to-End Approach to the development and deployment of security technologies and solutions.

Project Results:
Research and Innovation (R&I) activities have a catalysing effect, responding not only to the need of the European security market but also to the more dynamic, growing and highly competitive international market, where R&I can really foster the development of a competitive European security industrial base capable of its own innovation as the essential part of a European Security Industrial Policy.

Despite the continuous dialogue and efforts in the frame of the European Security Research Programme (ESRP) and the Security Industrial Policy (SIP), the results of research, like in other sectors, hardly reach the market and consequently weaken the ability of the European market to be competitive. The different findings from the ARCHIMEDES activities draw towards the conclusion that the convergence of all the relevant stakeholders into the R&I cycle, from research to implementation and use, along with those engaged in standardisation and regulatory processes improves the framework conditions for uptake of innovation. Particularly, the involvement of EU&Os throughout the R&I process would also leverage and rationalise financing for R&I at a European, national and regional level. The project consortium therefore proposes a set of recommendations and strategies to consolidate the Security Market, improve the deployment of European security research technologies and solutions on the market and facilitate the dialogue and collaboration between the key actors at European level.

1) Recommendations for Innovation Management Practices:

The final deliverable of Work package 1 proposes recommendations for the improvement of Innovation Management Practices within End-users and Operators organisations. This deliverable presents:
- the general ARCHIMEDES approach to Innovation Management, methods of the study, validation of the framework during the discussions at ten ARCHIMEDES Roundtables;
- the results of the project study on the innovation management framework for uptake by security end-users and the recommendations for improvement of end-users’ involvement in the innovation process;
- conclusions and perspectives for future work.

Following the general description of the approach to innovation management as a non-linear, non-deterministic process full of iterations, feedbacks and uncertainties at all times, and discussions of the innovation management framework, the analysis of the best opportunities of collaboration with end-users identifies the obvious stages where such collaboration is most natural, and possibilities for users’ involvement at other stages. The main message is that involvement of end-users in innovation management will improve impact on security innovation programmes. One of the key factors for success is the presence at the users’ side of people or an office that has an innovation manager profile and can ensure excellent communication with technology suppliers. Three main models of end-users organisations strategy have been identified - “internal”, “external”, and “mutualist”.

- Internal model, likely the best one when affordable for the user’s organization, is the presence inside the user’s organization of an innovation manager or an innovation management office. Ideally such an office is represented at the highest level in order to guarantee that the user’s organization has an innovation strategy.
- External model consists in subcontracting innovation management issues to external professionals who have proven experience in harmonious integration of users into innovation projects. External model has a history of success but may experience more difficulties in aligning projects with long term innovation strategies of users.
- Mutualist model consists in grouping together limited resources in sectorial users’ networks. Typically such networks are good at defining common gaps and needs, and may be used as well for the identification of common staff operational organisation but may not be the best at ensuring the follow-up of innovation projects. Such networks also provide a solid basis for the exchange of good innovation management practices among different user organizations.

The systematic communication with end-users and collaborative design of the innovation is of major importance at all times, and must enter into the business culture of all security organizations to become a common practice. The emergence of an innovative culture among EU&Os, the efficiency of collaborative networks of stakeholders can be facilitated by different actions creating a better environment. The best role of the EU in defining the security research is seen primarily as a facilitator promoting the best practices of collaborative innovation management culture, giving to the organisations possibilities to develop the model that best fits with their own environment.

The innovation management practices framework proposed by ARCHIMEDES has been generally widely validated. However it is important to always take into account the specific features in innovation management characteristic for each security field separately, where these specific features are stipulated by the source of innovation in the field, the categories of end-users involved, and the types of innovative tools to be developed.

2) Recommendations toward EU&O Friendly EU Funding Schemes

ARCHIMEDES provided a series of reports that presented its analysis and consolidation of operational needs and needs for innovation uptake following discussions with End-Users and Operators at the ten thematic roundtables organised throughout the project duration. The reports present an analysis of the obstacles identified for innovation management and friendly funding schemes for EU&O uptake as well as sector specific operational needs in the ten field of security analysed (civil aviation security, CBRNe, urban security, innovation management, border control and border surveillance, external dimension of security, civil protection, robotics in security, critical infrastructure protection and cybercrime and cyber-terrorism). This analysis eventually resulted in recommendations on what R&T needs should be funded, and how, as well as what other reform that are needed to make R&I more appealing to End-Users and Operators, and hence enhance the R&I uptake.

The recommendations derived from the roundtables were compared and consolidated with the preliminary needs identified are resulted in a final list of priority needs. These priority needs were then put in parallel with the obstacles that prevent EU&Os from exploiting R&I results in order to distinguish the ones that can be met through direct recommendations to the European Commission’s Security Research Unit for input into H2020 and the ones that require modifications on a higher scale (e.g. the necessity to have a share of the EU Research Funds dedicated to specific projects for EU&O can be solved through making the correct recommendations to the EC, while a need that requires the definition of common EU standards implies a much wider strategy and proposal). These recommendations were then translated into a list of clear recommendations to the Security Research Unit, a higher level of EC decision making and to EU&Os.

The main conclusions focus on the priorities that key stakeholders need to take into account for improving the involvement of End Users and Operators into the European Security Research process and for addressing their operational needs in a fast and efficient way.

• For DG ENTR and EC higher levels:
One key priority issue that stemmed from the different discussions and analysis is that globalisation has brought on new chal¬lenges in society, business and politics that have to be faced up to. The internation¬alisation of both trade and travel, the omnipresence of the Internet and the threats presented by extreme weather events and globally active terrorism have led to new vulnerabilities. For this reason it is important to promote comprehensive, interdisciplinary and holistic approaches to security at national, European and international levels to address the complex challenges that are being faced today.

Internationalisation and these new vulnerabilities have increased the pace of development of new threats and challenges that need to be managed by new technologies that can evolve fast and be adaptable to novelty. Aside from technologies, authorities also need to dedicate resources to anticipating and evaluating prospective threats in order to be prepared to face all possibilities.

New alliances should be formed, EU countries should work towards further European integration, and prospective analysis of the role of EU in the world and their consequences and needs should be undertaken in order to strengthen the EU’s position in the global security market. The EU needs to define partnerships for progress and strengthen the links between stakeholders by promoting the sharing of information and best practices and defining priority research topics considering the market as a whole, putting EU&Os in the front line. In order to create a clear common view of operational needs at the EU level, further links need to be created between national end-users and existing national security programmes for research, as well as other stakeholders for innovation, through a platform or a clear structure to ensure a dialogue between all the key stakeholders in the security market. The EC should give the tools, the methodologies and actions plans to the Member States, allowing them to put in place their own national security research programs, to avoid the actual existing gap in the transmission of information between the research security agency, DG ENTR and the Member States.

Authorities should make efforts to raise awareness on security issues and make them more acceptable to society. Societies and populations should be put at the heart of security research. Society requires a balance between freedom and security that should be analysed in every topic by providing a social sciences approach from the beginning of the project. While ensuring the strengthening of citizen security, one should reduce the constraining aspects that can be perceived on private life, or those induced by collective security measures often experienced as a limitation of civil liberties. A separate “Social dimensions of security research” line of funding is a significant factor in the success of the programme. Education would help to limit uncertainties by increasing society resilience, awareness and knowledge.

Concerning the specificities of the European Security Research programme, the EC should make further efforts to make Security R&D funding more attractive, accessible and easy to use. A framework for a flexible funding policy with long-term focus should be continually developed on the basis of experience with programme implementation and changing challenges. The demand-side innovation and EU&O participation in Research Funding schemes should be promoted by taking into account EU&Os needs and making the research schemes more attractive. Private companies should be further involved in public/private cooperation, since they can both provide more information for early detection and are the most common targets for attacks. The EC should incentivise relevant end-users organisations to establish a department specialised in innovation management and to assign the necessary resources to participate in the innovation management process since end-users need to be involved in all the phases of innovation management. Finally, the timeframe for awarding and concluding the negotiation procedures within a research project should be shorter in order to make available the R&T results to the end-users.

The current financial crisis also pushes for budgets to be reduced and Member States have to concentrate on saving their national budgets which makes them put less importance to European research and innovation. For this reason the most important priority for EU Security Research should be to optimise funds and ensure the uptake and industrialisation of research projects. The areas of research should be more focused, integrated approaches should be promoted, EU&Os and the industry should be included in the definition of research needs and topics, the technology readiness levels of the research projects should be increase, and Pre-Commercial Procurement should be promoted. Civil-military coordination is also required in the security research domain, not only from the financial saving point of view but also from the effectiveness perspective, as there are more and more CIVMIL cooperation areas.

The uptake, scaling-up and use of project results should be improved by putting emphasis on R&D results commercialisation, creating research instruments adequate for each TRL and promote those with a high TRL for commercial purposes. Intellectual property rights management should be supported and the dissemination of projects, mainly on their outcomes, should be increased. Additionally, there are opportunities arising from standardisation, validation of research results and certification, procurement and demonstration phases.

The development of standards in EU-funded security research projects and the adoption of Test and Evaluation in order to determine the system’s technical performance and operational effectiveness should be promoted. Validation and certification activities at national level or the mutual recognition of national authorisations should be encouraged and steered by EU decision makers.

Key stakeholders should make use of existing knowledge and information by continuously collecting and analysing information related to the potential risks for the authorities to be able to take immediate strategic preventive or reactive actions; supporting networking, exchange of best practices and information sharing platforms with a view to improve efficiency and increase results uptake.

Finally there should be a shift in priorities from response to preparedness by promoting national investments in preparedness activities, risk and threat assessment, prospective, risk management strategies, impact assessment, etc. In order to stimulate innovation, a global security policy should be developed both for academic research and industry; an interdepartmental committee on R&T should be established to formulate appropriate recommendations on gathering and prioritising the research projects so that the activities of the security research and industry fit in with the future European structure; and draft information on research programmes should be shared with end users to stimulate feed-back.

• For EU&Os:
In order to increase their participation in EU-funded research programmes and therefore contribute to filling the gap between research and the market, EU&Os should appoint national representatives who are in charge of establishing links between all national EU&Os and between the different representatives at the EU level.

EU&Os hold assign resources, own or external, to innovation activities. They should invest in gaining knowledge of existing R&T projects and activities, innovation management activities, involvement in international community, exploitation of R&T results, assessment of the potential adaptation of existing assets to new threats and tasks, etc. They should identify the gaps in their operational procedures and define an Innovation Management Strategy for the organisation, with specific departments well-staffed and with equipment and tools for innovation. The strategy should evolve and adapt, like in natural selection, in the right direction to face the changing context of work influenced by factors like technologies, relationships, stakeholders, economy, etc.

EU&Os should concentrate on early risk management and establish a foresight capability and evaluate the future impact of the collected needs. It is recommended they promote interoperability, standards and common data models with external organisations and other EU&O organisations. They should establish procedures and tools for the different phases of the innovation cycle, and prepare use-case scenarios which practically illustrate the application area of the to-be-developed solution. End-users should have access to field testing and validation of the technology from the very early stages.

They should ensure the integration of new solutions into their existing solutions and commit to help preparing tests in realistic integration scenario which are based on real operational experiences. Indeed, strong involvement of end-users in the Testing and Validation stages is normally welcome by both the supply and demand side. Furthermore, EU&O’ participation in the Certification phase should be improved to agree on European in addition to national requirements in order to foster interoperability and market alignment.

Better exploitation conditions of products or technologies for those EU&Os who have actively participated in the R&D project seems reasonable and a good way to motivate the involvement of EU&Os. This would promote more effective demand-side innovation as it is followed up by EU&O from the beginning to the end. In line with this, Pre-Commercial Procurement is seen with high expectations by Public Administration and industries. Finally, the innovation products have to be disseminated to all the relevant people and departments inside and outside an organisation, and by means of practical presentations that go beyond theoretical studies, papers and presentation at conferences.

In conclusion, there are many solutions and opportunities for reaching an End-to-End Approach to Security Research and for funding to be optimised while targeting the heart of the different security markets operational needs. By following a process where EU&Os are involved in all stages of the research process and by increasing efforts in the dissemination, industrialisation and uptake of research results, most of the obstacles presented in this document could be overcome. It is now left to the decision-makers to take these recommendations into account and make the necessary changes to strengthen the EU security market as a whole.

3) Manual for EU&Os to participate in the European Security Research Programme

ARCHIMEDES proposes a manual that gives an overview of European research procedures and funding schemes and targets End-Users and Operators by outlining the process for participating in EU funding schemes. The document also describes other funding schemes and is based on analysis from the research done throughout the project and the discussions in the ten roundtables.

The manual explains and outlines the required information on funding schemes such as financial and legal regulations, bidding, project management, financial audit procedures etc. In particular describing the new Framework Program for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020 (H2020). It is to be used as a guide for EU&Os who are not familiar with the processes for applying for funding and participating in research projects funded by the European Commission.

The manual is structured in the following chapters:
- What is Horizon 2020
- Rules for Participation
- Tips for Project Preparation and Evaluation
- Tips for Implementation of the Grant
- Possible Combination of Horizon 2020 with other EU funding Schemes.

4) End-to-End Approach

5) Alliance for European Growth and Innovation in Security (AEGIS)

One of ARCHIMEDES’ key objectives was to establish a lasting dialogue and cooperation between Member States organisations coordinating the national security demand and supply side, therefore better supporting the implementation of the activities foreseen by the European Security Industrial Policy.

Within this objective, the Consortium has investigated the possibility to provide a structured support to such dialogue and cooperation with the creation of a European Network of National Organisations for Security – called “AEGIS” (Alliance for European Growth and Innovation in Security) - including End-Users, Operators, Industry, Research Institutes, Public Administrations, etc.

AEGIS would create a structured link between national organisations of different European countries dealing with security issues and representing different sectors, in order to defend the needs of national and local, public and private, users, operators and suppliers, not only on R&D issues but for all the steps of the life of security solutions and services, as well as facilitating the creation and growth of such national organisations in countries where they are not existing or sufficiently organised.

The idea of AEGIS stemmed from the will to fulfil the following objectives:
- improve communication and collaboration among stakeholders from different interest groups, needs and countries, bringing issues from national public-private dialogue at EU level for consolidation
- promote the defragmentation and growth of the European security market fostering harmonisation of users ‘operational requirements for R&D and implementation;
- foster development and use of sustainable European solutions, compatible with national sovreignty issues, to answer the needs of users and operators;
- support closing the gap between research and market linking national and EU issues
- help national approaches have an impact on European policy-making also by sharing national best practices;
- support development of an efficient EU Industrial Base, exploiting at best local competences;
- be a key instrument for a successful European Security Industrial Policy, supporting the growth of the competitiveness of the European industry and research centers;
- develop / boost the EU security market (including services) and export, providing benefit to national and local stakeholders.

The concept of AEGIS came from a dialogue that started in 2007 between National Organisations for Security (NOS, in this text) from different EU countries (AT, BE, FR, GE, GR, IR, IT, NL, RO, SE, SP, UK) under the initiative of EOS, in parallel to the continued efforts from the European Commission to promote public private dialogue and cooperation in the field of security.

The generic term of “National Organisations for Security” is used for the purpose of this network as a “neutral” term that represents the different national configurations and governance structures in each country. These organisations might be public or private, and represent one or more group of stakeholders or sectors. Existing national organisations also have different structures, approaches (public, private, public – private) and different objectives, as cultures and security needs are different across Europe.

Yet, not all EU Member States have reached a level of maturity in their national organisations that allows brining at EU level national security issues and needs of both the demand and the supply side. For this reason, AEGIS has the ambition to facilitate the creation and growth of such national organisations in countries where they are not existing or sufficiently organised.

AEGIS is based on the idea that local competences and local needs should be used to support the creation of an EU agenda. This includes taking into account the local users and operators’, and even the suppliers’ viewpoint. This approach would overcome the difficulty of bringing together stakeholders (in particular, users) from 28 MS to identify their common views and priorities.

The purpose of establishing this network is thus to have a Forum composed by expert of key stakeholders dealing with security issues at national level, in order to create trust, exchange best practices, and identify common features and needs, defining common harmonised topics and creating consensus across the countries, thus feeding the EU decision makers with priorities and suggestions and facilitate the creation of a long-term strategy for the EU security market.

AEGIS would neither substitute nor interfere with the work of existing bodies such as the Programme Committee or the EC Security Advisory Group. It will neither be an alternative to EOS nor an inter-governmental structure. On the contrary, it aims to provide complementary support to such bodies as well as to the European Commission providing a level playing field with an open, democratic and transparent dialogue, in getting close to national users and operators needs and suppliers requirements to improve competitiveness.

It is important to underline that AEGIS does not aim to duplicate activities but would further structure the dialogue by creating of a network that would link, structure and facilitate the communication channels between key stakeholder groups from the EU countries with local / regional / national issues.

Consistency between the existing bodies and AEGIS activities will be provided by the fact that there will be several representatives taking part in the same bodies. For instance, in AEGIS we will expect representatives from key EC DGs, members of the Programme Committee, members of the Security Advisory Group, etc.

AEGIS will have a clear identity which would be constituted by the fact that it raises local issues and then will bring them to the EU. Indeed, the main message/characteristic of AEGIS will be its “from countries to Europe” approach and AEGIS should be seen as some sort of brokerage platform.

Potential Impact:
1) The Recommendations

The main output from the different activities of the ARCHIMEDES project was presented in the form of recommendations. ARCHIMEDES being a holistic project, these recommendations concerned different levels of the security market and were directed at different groups of stakeholders.

The target groups depending on the type of recommendation were the following:

- End Users and Operators (EU&Os)
- The European Commission’s Security Research Programme
- National and European Policy-Makers

The five type of recommendations that were gathered can be categories into the following five categories:

• Recommendations on specific operational needs in ten key areas of the security market
In total, 10 roundtables were organised on specific sectoral as well as transversal security topics by the different ARCHIMEDES partners. These roundtables provided opportunities for end-users and operators to network, contribute to the end-user definition of operational needs and increase their coordination at European level. End-Users and Operators were given a chance to discuss, define and validate the ARCHIMEDES recommendations and exchange views on the operational needs in their particular sector. The roundtables were held in small formats (20-60 participants) in order to create trust between the participants and allow for in-depth discussions.
The following roundtables were organised:
- Roundtable 1 – Aviation Security, 29-30 October 2012, Berlin, Germany
- Roundtable 2 – CBRN Event Response, 20-21 December 2012, Paris, France
- Roundtable 3 – Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism, 8-9 April 2013, Rome, Italy
- Roundtable 4 – External Dimension of Security, 24-25 April 2013, Brussels, Belgium
- Roundtable 5 – Smart Borders, 17-18 October 2013, Madrid, Spain
- Roundtable 6 – Civil Protection, 9-10 January 2014, Warsaw, Poland
- Roundtable 7 – Innovation Management, 20-21 February 2014, Aix-en-Provence, France
- Roundtable 8 – Robotics in Security, 9-10 April 2014, Warsaw, Poland
- Roundtable 9 – Critical Infrastructure Protection, 23-24 June 2014, Paris, France
- Roundtable 10 – Urban Security, 30-31 October 2014, Paris, France

The operational needs gaps expressed during the roundtables were reported in roundtable reports for each of the 10 roundtables (D3.2 – D3.11). The reports were structured in a way that emphasised a number of key recommendations as the core and main conclusions of each report. The reports also attempted to turn operational needs into potential research topics that could be funding by the European Commission under its Security Research Programme (currently H2020).

The target audience of these reports was the unit dealing with the Security Research Programme at the European Commission as well as other decision makers/advisers in the process, namely the Programme Committee and the Security Advisory Group.

• Recommendations on Innovative Management Practices
The whole work of WP1 had the final goal to come up with a number of recommendations for EU&Os on what changes they need to make internally for them to increase their innovative potential and link with the security research process (whether at national or European level).

The final report (D1.4) presented the ARCHIMEDES project’s conclusions and provided recommendations on innovation management practices and processes by leveraging on and summarising the results of WP1 dedicated to innovation management practices and of the Roundtables held in WP3 dealing with these aspects.

The ARCHIMEDES project worked on the principle that in order to change the security research landscape and promote the involvement of EU&Os into all stage of the research process, changes need to be made at EU level but also within EU&O organisations themselves.

The recommendations from WP1 therefore revolved on the following:
- Innovation management culture must impact the whole innovation cycle
- Innovation management culture must impact the different categories of users
- Innovation can be improved by collaborative design platforms
- Career opportunities for innovation managers at the user’s side should be promoted
- Long term collaboration for innovation management should be promoted
- The impact of collaborative innovation on the understanding of societal issues in security innovation should be considered as a key motivator
- A collaborative approach for standardisation should be adopted
- The limits of a global approach of security innovation should be taken into account and recognised
- Networks of security innovators and users should be created
- A more favourable environment for collaborative innovation should be promoted

• Recommendations on EU&Os’ Needs for R&T Participation and EU&O Friendly Funding Schemes
WP2 focused more on a global approach to the problem and described the different obstacles that prevented EU&Os from being further involved in the existing Security Research process. The conclusions and recommendations from WP2 were therefore divided by target audience, namely EU&Os, the EU Security Research Programme and higher-level policy makers.

The recommendations to EU&Os revolved around the need to
- Work collaboratively
- Seek support to understand European research and innovation processes
- Understand and accept the risks
- Voice operational needs and push for their inclusion in research work programmes
- Develop better structures for collecting, analysing, formulating and exploring research needs
- Develop better structures for developing, integrating, validating and certifying new technologies and solutions

The recommendations to EU Security Research Programme and higher-level policy makers were focused on:
- Promoting Holistic Approaches in EU-funded Security Research and EU Legislations
- Adapting to a Fast Growing World
- Promoting Collaboration and Harmonisation at Local, Regional, European and International Levels
- Raising Awareness and Acceptance of Security Issues
- Making Security R&D Funding more Attractive, Accessible and Easy to Use
- Promoting the Optimisation of EU Security Research Funds
- Improving the Uptake, Scaling-up and Use of Project Results
- Promoting Standardisation, Validation and Certification of Methods and Solutions
- Making Use of Existing Knowledge and Information
- Improving Strategic Guidance and Preparedness
- Proposing New Specific Thematic Research Topics for H2020
- Promoting Innovation and the Use of Innovative Tools for EU&Os

• Recommendations on how to move towards an End-to-End Approach to the development of security technologies and solutions
Task 1.3 (WP1) focused on exploring the ways and means for an end-to-end approach (from operational needs to validation and certification) for Security Research and Innovation. ARCHIMEDES developed an End-to-End Approach (described in D1.3) which describes what could be the “ideal” cycle that should be followed when developing a security technology or solution, analyses the current obstacles and gaps that break the cycle, analyses the efforts made by the European Commission through its different initiatives to overcome these issues and proposes a number of actions that could make use of existing initiatives and schemes by optimising existing solutions and linking them together into integrated EU programmes.

• Recommendations on how to build a strong public-private dialogue
Throughout WP3, the Consortium sought to create a lasting dialogue between the different stakeholders of the European security market and came to the conclusion that an official structure should be built for collaboration and dialogue between all actors who have a role in promoting the defragmentation of the market.

Through this work, the Consortium proposed a structure for a European Network of National Organisations for Security and defined the steps that need to be followed to start a long-term collaboration.

2) The Briefing Papers

As planned in WP1, WP2 and WP3, a number of key recommendations were collected and translated into thematic briefing papers. Each briefing paper aimed to stay focused on the recommendations without getting into too many details about the background of the research. The reason for this was that they papers were targeted at high-level policy makers who don’t have much time to read lengthy reports and in order to maximise the impact of the recommendations the briefing papers had to stay short and straightforward. At the same time the briefing papers give the possibility for further collaboration and discussion should the interlocutor want to start a dialogue or simply receive more information.

In order to be consistent with the structure of the project, the briefing papers followed the 10 thematic areas covered in the roundtables and gave a short summary of the key points for each thematic area, as well as the structure of the roundtable and the organisations that participated.

These briefing papers were sent to key policy makers at EU level (in electronic version) and were printed into booklets for distribution during events and high-level policy meetings (EOS’ High-Level Security Roundtable, Security Advisory Group meetings, meetings with the European Commission, etc.).

3) Impact on European Research Agendas

The recommendations drawn from WP1, WP2 and WP3 were disseminated and promoted through the different networks available to the Consortium.

The European Commission’s unit dealing with the Security Research Programme was involved at all levels of the process. Consultation meetings took place before roundtables in order to discuss with them the key themes that should be discussed during roundtables and all roundtable reports were sent to them.

The Programme Committee was also invited to participate to all ARCHIMEDES events and was well represented in some of them. Similarly, the Security Advisory Group was invited and collaborated with ARCHIMEDES through its representatives present in some of the ARCHIMEDES partner organisations.

The ARCHIMEDES recommendations were distributed and discussed with the following stakeholders:
- The SecAG (through direct Partners: MIR-ES, EOS, PIAP and UCL), other Members of EOS participating in the SecAG (Fraunhofer, EADS, TNO, MORPHO)
- Informal support from the experts of the IMG-S (through UCL)
- Platforms of the ARCHIMEDES Partners at the national and local level, such as GESA and HCDFC
- ARCHIMEDES events
- Existing networks such as FRONTEX, ENISA, Europol, EEAS, EDA, ESA, EASA, EMSA, EUSC, etc.
- The Programme Committee
- Collaboration with existing networks such as ENLETS
- Discussions at the ARCHIMEDES final conference between the Unit for Security Research (DG ENTR), members of the Programme Committee, members of the IMG-S and members of the Security Advisory Board
- An event was organised at the parliament in 2013 in order to present the different priorities for Horizon 2020. Roughly 70 representatives from EU Institutions attended the meeting: Members of the European Parliament, European Commission (DG ENTR, CNECT, HOME, ECHO, CLIMA, TAXUD, MARE, JRC), Council of the EU, EU Agencies (FRONTEX, EUROPOL), EEAS, EDA, Member States and the private sector.

The ARCHIMEDES Consortium can proudly say that the messages were well received from the different stakeholders. The project generated a lot of interest and created a momentum for the creation of a sustainable public-private dialogue.

During the event at the European Parliament, 8 different EC DGs and 7 important Member States representatives at the Programme Committee present that day acknowledged the importance of the recommendations. The findings of this meeting were distributed and commented to all the invited persons and another smaller specific meeting with a number of MEPs was organised at the EP to debate with them the results of this meeting, hence achieving the initial expected goal.

During the ARCHIMEDES final conference, the topics in the future European security research work programmes were discussed and the Consortium saw many of its recommendations already taken into account in the future investments.

The ongoing dialogue created throughout the 3 years of the project-span means that the recommendations will keep being transferred to interested parties and the Consortium partners will continue disseminating the work done and push for a more structured and integrated European security market.