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Novel technologies for dissimilar materials joining

Final Report Summary - YBRIDIO (Novel technologies for dissimilar materials joining)

Executive Summary:
The main achievements after 36 months of cooperation are:

• Determination of the compatibility between different metal-composites
• Identification of the main factors that affects to the quality of the joint.
• Definition of the best process input parameters (power, process speed, clamping force, etc) for both laser and induction manufacturing methods.
• Definition of the optimal joint configuration and joint strategy for a higher joint strength for sand blasted parts.
• Design of basic test samples
• Selection and production of textured parts (sand blasted parts) to improve material adhesion.
• Design and implementation of a flexible clamping device for laser joining
• Development of a temperature control system for LTJ based on pyrometer.
• Development of a temperature control system for IJ based on thermocouples.
• Creation of project website
• Definition on the influence of process parameters on the performance of the joining processes.
• Comparison of different surface structuring methods
• Simulation models which predict the temperature and current distributions during induction joining.
• Physical characterization of materials
• Preparation of the metal part with different surface characteristics to study the material adhesion
• Production of further test samples
• Production of representative test cases
• Portfolio of modular optical heads for different beam shapes for laser joining
• Flexible induction system with various coil shapes and integrated thermal management
• Clamping units tailored to the specific needs of hybrid joining, exemplified by the Ybridio test cases
• Software including graphical user interface for process control and quality data acquisition for induction and laser joining processes
• System-integrated demonstrators for the laser and induction joining process
• Elaboration of different process strategies for quality assurance.
• Development of integrated system for supervision and control of the most influential parameters (temperature, coil height, pressure) for induction joining
• Development of integrated system for supervision and control of the most influential parameters (temperature, lack of horizontality, pressure) for laser joining
• Report generation about the estimated quality of the joint for laser joining.
• Improvement the strength of the joint and the stability of the process thanks to the developed control and supervision systems.
• WP6 activities has permitted to acquire further knowledge in thermal joining technologies for dissimilar material and, in particular, to improve the know-how in the most suitable materials combination, in the parameters affecting the bonding quality and in the surface treatments to favor a better strength. Potential opportunities for new design of components and products have been identified, allowable to enhance mechanical and functional properties of parts. However, the common feeling among end users has been that the novel thermal joining technologies, even though promising, are not still mature for fully industrial applications and further technological development are needed to get optimal adhesion and strength between dissimilar parts. Process parameters require careful and precise machineries settings in relation to each application and design constraints have to be taken into account to assure repeatability of the joining process at shop-floor. Since the joining cycle times are still too long for industry requirements, the support of specific simulation SWs is kindly required to provide in advance the relevant joining parameters and the estimation of the process time.
• Completion of Dissemination Plan.
• Completion of Exploitation Plan.
• Attendance at multiple dissemination events (Conferences, shows and events) with more planned .
• Exploitation Strategy Seminar (ESS) successfully held at ÉireComposites .
• Development of Key Exploitable Results (KERs) for each partner.
• Further evolution of dissemination materials. Updates to website, LinkedIn and newsletters with up to date project information.
• No conflict of interest arising from IPR. All members reaching agreements on any IPR generated.
Project Context and Objectives:
The requirements of innovation and efficiency are pushing industrial manufacturing methods to a new stage, where novel materials and components with enhanced properties are required. Polymers and polymer based composites are able to provide strength, light weight, corrosion resistance, impact resistance, etc. which are highly demanded from advanced technological sectors such as automotive, aerospace, electronics, consumer goods and others.
For this reason the main objective presented in this project is the development of innovative and reliable thermal joining methods to join dissimilar materials, such as metal-plastic hybrid parts, with the aim to produce high quality joints between dissimilar materials, ensuring the integrity of the structure throughout the design, production and life cycle performance. Therefore, Ybridio is focused on thermal joining methods, specifically laser transmission joining (LTJ) and induction joining (IJ), which have demonstrated excellent potential to be implanted in industry. Both techniques deliver the energy directly to the base material and transmit the heat by conduction to the polymer part, so that the entire surfaces of both materials are attached to each other without any adhesive.

The Ybridio project aims to achieve the following results:

- Development of innovative and reliable new thermal joining techniques to join two or more different types of materials creating hybrid structures, such as metal with polymer and with composite laminates:
Due to their diversity, all demonstrator parts have contributed to the joining process development, each in a different way.
• Underbody shield: The adjustment of the joining process to the combination of GMT and laser structured aluminium, showed the importance of generating sufficient melt flow. In this case, this could be reached by a two-step joining process.
• Inauxa demonstrator.
The key results that have gone beyond the state of the art for WP2 are the following:
-- Before the project, there was a continuous induction joining available for composite+composite. The WP2-development was to transfer to metals and composites, experiments and simulations to support this development process. The state of the art after WP2 is that there is a continuous induction joining available for metals and composites.
-- Before the project, the discontinuous hybrid induction joining only was available as “spot welding”. In the WP2 there was developed discontinuous induction joining process for larger areas, by identifying suitable parameters, coil design, surface structuring which is suitable for large areas. After work achieved in WP2, the discontinuous induction joining is available for joining larger areas of metals and composites.
-- Before the project, there was no experience on simulation of hybrid induction joining. In the WP2 there have been developed simulation models for hybrid induction joining.
-- Before the project, there was no reliable comparison of different surface structures which are tested under reliable conditions, joined in the same way, same materials used...In WP2 there was achieved the Comparison between different surface structuring methods under reliable conditions, so now there is Information on the influence of surface structuring on joint strength.
-- Before the project the knowledge on factors, that influence adhesion (such as temperature, pressure) had to be gathered from many different sources and was therefore not useful. In WP2 there was achieved an investigation of different factors (temperature, pressure, process speed,...) under reliable process conditions, with defined material combinations, so now importance of different factors can be compared and thereby most important factors can be determined.

- Improvement of the characteristics of structures and components, combining and complementing the properties of each material:
Each of the demonstration parts developed as test cases in WP3 have contributed towards each of these aspects:
• ELUX test case “Arc of a drum”:
The objective has been pursued with the definition of a demonstrator, a hybrid arc, partially representative of a drum, integrated into a dryer. The final industrial target is in fact the substitution, in a vented dryer, of the current stainless steel drum with one realized in polymeric material. This replacement might bring in various technical and economic advantages for the component, beyond the cost and weight reduction as the faster manufacturability and the introduction of new functional properties. The presence of plastic material allows the potential integration, in the drum, of sensors (for retrieving data on humidity, weight, etc....) the improvement of fabric care properties, specific hygienic treatments and the aesthetical appearance for the customers working on plastic colours and patterns. It is clear that, to proceed with this type of innovation, that would be considered a real breakthrough for the sector (no appliance manufacturer currently offer a polymeric drum within dryers), the drum manufacturing process has to be carefully assessed and designed especially for geometries, material selection and structural performances.
The laser joining process for dissimilar materials is promising and offers alternative methods to traditional techniques. Since it is still in the developmental stage and more studies need to be done to effectively understand the feasibility and durability of the process, each application that intends to make use of it has to be well assessed in the different parameters, if a maximum reliability in the hybrid joining has to be achieved.
• INAUXA test case “Stabilizer link”:
The proposed test cases joined by thermal joining methods present important advantages compared with the current joining method (fully steel parts): lower weight, lower price, lower risk of oxidation, etc. However there are too many open questions to be solved before introduce this geometry and joining technologies into the production line.
In first place, it is necessary to solve the big dispersion of the results because of a not reliable manufacturing process and ensure a constant interference fit. Once this is solved, the reliability of the bonding process can also be checked.
• EIRE test case “access hole”:
The addition of lightweight composite stiffeners will increase the structural performance of the titanium part without the weight penalty associated with fasteners and incorporating a more automated manufacturing method than adhesives. The combination of titanium and CF/PEEK retains the damage tolerance of the structure while minimising the overall weight.
• HBW test case “L-pull specimen”:
In the test case “L-pull specimen”, the bonding strength of laser and induction joined samples was compared to the conventional joining method of adhesive bonding.
An improvement of the mechanical performance could not be attained, which is mainly due to the design and the loading condition. This test is more of a comparative test between joining methods rather than a quantitative test of the joint and the results should not be used as a design allowable. In addition, this kind of peel test represents the worst case for welded or adhesive connections. For an industrial application the load case should be considered and optimized by design measures. Therefore application-oriented studies should be carried out for a specific product. The results must be confirmed by further investigations to ensure that all influences of the process parameters can be assessed.
As a criterion for a high quality welding process, a sufficient resin “push out” from all sides of the composite part is determined. The thermoplastic semi-finished products used generally have a relatively low matrix content which is also tightly bound through the fabric. A higher matrix content in the joining zone, e.g. by an additionally applied thermoplastic film, could improve the bond strength.
The main advantages of the novel joining methods are the high potential of saving weight, time and cost.
• HBW test case “underbody shield”:
The test case “underbody shield” considers two relevant sections of an underbody shield. The metal brackets and the plastic component are currently fixed with rivet connections and were compared with those joined by induction. An improvement of the mechanical performance could be accomplished for one section respectively bracket. In this case, the design and the load situation are suitable and a comparable bonding strength could be achieved. In addition, the following characteristics must be fulfilled for an effective bonding: cavities respectively undercuts of the laser structure are filled with polymer and only a small amount of glass fibres and voids like air pockets are present in the joining zone.
The results must be confirmed by further investigations to ensure that all influences of the process parameters can be assessed. In addition, further test such as chemical resistance and climate change tests must be carried out for an industrial application.
By the implementation of all requirements demanded by the automotive industry the novel joining method would be an alternative for riveting.
Furthermore the joining process must be improved by reducing the cycle time (heat and press at the same time, automation of the process, etc.).
The main advantages of the novel joining methods are the high potential of saving weight, time and cost.
The results obtained from the work in WP3 have gone beyond the state of the art:
So far the traditional fusion bonding technologies existing in the industry are complicated processes with too many stages, which present difficulties in ensuring the bond quality and controlling process parameters, in particular to join different fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) with metals. Thus taking advantage of the outstanding properties that can be achieved by direct laser and induction joining, Ybridio is addressed to adapt the existing laser and induction polymer welding technologies to join FRTC with other dissimilar materials, especially with metal components, increasing the application field and flexibility of both joining processes.
For the implementation new composite materials specifically adapted to the laser and induction joining processes had been developed. To adapt either the plastic and / or the metal component can be modified.
In case of joining dissimilar materials using laser transmission joining (LTJ) preferable transparent plastics are required. The energy is applied directly at the interface of the parts by transmitting the laser radiation through the plastic component which is placed above (upper layer)
In the industrial sectors such as aerospace and automotive industry the components are reinforced with carbon or glass fibres to achieve the required performance. In addition, the components are coloured dark which complicates or even precludes the LTJ. For this joining technology the maximum content of additives and fillers and the laser energy transmission through the fibre distribution had been detected.
Due to the strict controls involved in the aerospace industry no special modifications have been made to the material to change the basic mechanical performance or chemical composition as this would require re-qualification of the material for aerospace applications. This also applies, although to a lesser degree, to applications in the automotive industry.
The weldability of dissimilar materials by means of laser, however, can be carried out by changing the process conditions. If the test setup is changed in such a way that the metal is not heated directly through the plastic, but indirectly, the joining zone can be brought to the necessary process temperature by the heat conduction of the metal. In figure 3 consequently, the joining partners are replaced by each other.
In case of joining dissimilar materials using induction joining (IJ) the composition of the plastic component is of secondary importance. For the transfer of energy to heat the plastic component in the joining zone, an electrical conductor is required, which is given by the metal component.
For the joining of composite materials with a high proportion of fillers and reinforcing materials a sufficient quantity of polymer must be present for wetting the metal surface. This can be ensured e.g. by adding an additional layer of un-reinforced material at the bondline and leads to an intimate surface contact with the metal component, a reduction of voids in the joining zone and a good bonding strength.
The partners see few benefits in the development of new composite materials due to the better availability, the lower price and existing certifications. The weldability can also be influenced by the proper selection of suitable materials in consideration of the processes requirements and product specifications. Likewise, the choice of a suitable joining process (induction or laser) is available. In particular, the bond strength can be significantly affected through the appropriate processing parameters.
Since the bond is determined mainly by the surface properties of the metal components a higher priority on the pre-treatment of these is attributed.
The goal of a pre-treatment is basically to improve the wettability of the surface and to improve the adhesion of the different materials. The intention is to achieve a non-positive connection by increasing the surface area and creating undercuts for the serration of the plastic component. A variety of pre-treatments were studied, whereby the sandblasting and
laser texturing conceded the best results. The properties of these methods are listed in the following list:
-- Sandblasting method: This method increases surface roughness through the use of an abrasive. The cost is low, the speed medium, the flexibility high and the strength improvement average.
-- Laser surface texturing method: This method melts the surface of the metal and generates a pattern of melt accumulations along grooves. The cost of this method is high, the speed is fast, the flexibility is high and the strength improvement high.

The major advantages of the laser surface texturing are the increase of the surface roughness, the creation of undercuts and the possibility to align the texture due to the specific load cases.
An example for the joining of dissimilar materials are the combinations of Steel-GMT and Steel-GF/PA6.
The metal component is pre-treated with laser surface texturing and illustrates the undercuts. The combination of steel and GMT is a good example for proper bonding. Because of the high flowability of the thermoplastic polymer almost all undercuts are filled and only a few voids can be detected compared to the combination of steel and GF/PA6.
In addition, to achieve proper bonding also the design of the joining partners must be considered and should be adapted to the specific load cases. The known guidelines of bonded joints are to be noted here. First of all shear stresses should be favoured instead of tensile stresses, the joining zone should be arranged in the same plane as the forces acting to them and the joint must be protected against bending.
In summary, the following guidelines for the joining of dissimilar materials can be highlighted:
• Transparent materials are required for laser transmission joining (LTJ).
• Non-transparent materials can be joined by laser conduction joining (LCJ) or induction joining (IJ).
• Bonding strength can be significantly affected through the appropriated processing parameters.
• A high flowability of the polymer is recommended.
• The surface of the plastic and metal component must be cleaned and degreased as a basic requirement for a sufficient wettability and adhesion.
• A sufficient quantity of polymer in the joining zone is recommended for a good wettability, a completely filling of undercuts and a reduction of voids.
• Bonding strength can be mainly influenced by a surface pre-treatment of the metal component.
• The design of the joining partners must be adapted to the load case.

- Simplification of industrial plants and processes to reduce manufacturing cost:
Industrial production processes can be significantly simplified by hybrid joining by laser or induction. Incumbent technologies used for benchmarking are primarily adhesive joining (gluing) and mechanical fastening, e. g. by rivets.
With respect to adhesive joining, laser or induction joining can reduce the cycle time by obviating the need for an additional glue curing production step. As gluing and baking stations are no more required, this also reduces capital cost. Furthermore, in contrast to LJ and IJ, gluing is still mainly done manually, thus requiring a number of protective measures for human health.
As an example, HBW Gubesch would be able to reduce the production steps of glue applying and baking their underbody shields when using automated induction joining instead.
Mechanical fastening in many cases requires drilling of holes and manual insertion of fasteners such as rivets. Both process steps are time-consuming and require a number of auxiliary components. In contrast to this, the joining process can be greatly sped up and simplified by laser / induction joining.
As a further example, EIRE Composites could remove the steps drilling holes and inspecting them, and attaching fasteners when switching to induction joining in an automated fashion. Generally spoken, the laser and induction joining processes lend themselves more easily towards automation of the assembly process and thus to cycle time and cost reduction. Furthermore, they yield more accurate and operator-independent results and allow for in-line quality monitoring.
The key results that have gone beyond the state of the art for WP4 are the following:
• System-integrated demonstrators for the laser and induction joining process, comprised of the following constituents:
--Modular optical heads adaptable to different beam shapes for laser joining
--Flexible induction system with various coil shapes and integrated thermal management
--Clamping units tailored to the specific needs of hybrid joining, exemplified by the Ybridio test cases
--Software including graphical user interface for process control and quality data acquisition for induction and laser joining processes

- To create a specific control system based on IR and NIR cameras, to ensure the quality of the components during the manufacturing process:
The use of thermal methods for joining of dissimilar materials has supposed a novel application for exiting technologies, so very little information could be found in bibliography about material compatibilities, behaviour of the process or main parameters affecting bonding quality.
Thanks to Ybridio project a list of most influential parameters and their correlation with different defects has been done, increasing the know-how about the behaviour of the process and the materials interaction. The implementation of the monitoring systems has allowed the detection of the optimal parameters and process window for each material combination.
The acquired know how has enabled the development of new process strategies which have gone beyond the state of the art, as the use of very thin films of thermoplastic material in order to increase the amount of material into the cavities of the metallic part, the use of acid for improvement of the laser energy absorption, or the use of cycles of temperature for reduce the cooling rate.
The supervision and control systems developed within the project are based on load cells and proportional valves for pressure control and based on pyrometers and IR cameras for temperature control. It has been proved that pyrometers are more suitable to ensure the quality on laser joined parts because of the punctual character of the laser beam. However in the induction joined case, the total area of the coil must be evaluated, so a temperature control system based on IR camera better secures the consistency of the joint. These solutions have not been applied and integrated together until now for joining of dissimilar materials through thermal methods.
The developed supervision and control systems has been tested on the final demonstrator parts, providing stable temperature and pressure results and showing their potential for the reduction of defects as well as the improvement of the strength of the joint and the stability of the process.

- Recycling and environmental impact: thermoplastic-metal joints can be disassembled easily by applying heat again which allows easy separation:
Ybridio works with thermoplastics materials that can be recycled directly by easy disassembly applying heat again, or by pull out the thermoplastic part leaving a minimum contamination in the metal part due to the thermoplastic portion remaining in the interlocking zones. Environmental legislation and waste management approaches based on concepts like the ‘polluter pays’ are all increasing the pressure on manufacturers of materials and end-products to consider the environmental impact of their products at all stages of their life cycle – including ultimate disposal, a ‘cradle to grave’ approach. At this moment, ‘designing for recycling’ or ‘eco-design’ is becoming a philosophy that is applied to more and more materials and products. The Ybridio approach helps the automotive industry to make every component recyclable because of a new European Union (EU) directive on the end-of-life of vehicles (ELV). This states that by 2015 vehicles must be made of 95% recyclable materials, of which 85% can be recovered through reuse or mechanical recycling and 10% through energy recovery or thermal recycling. The ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) came into force in October 2000 and all member states were required to transpose the directive into national law by April 2002. The directive aims to reduce the amount of waste from vehicles (automobiles and vans) and includes requirements for member states to introduce strict standards for the treatment of ELVs at authorized treatment facilities (ref. Ton Peijs “Composites for recyclability” ISSN:1369 7021 © Elsevier Science Ltd 2003). In this respect, Ybridio will simplify the recycling systems and the required energy for disassembling and processing the thermoplastic (i.e. by means of granulators) and metal (scrap) components.
Project Results:
Main S&T results/foregrounds by task:

Task 1.1: Consolidation of detailed end-user requirements related to products and processes (M1-M3)
Inauxa has prepared and sent a questionnaire to end-users to collect data for detailed requirements specification related materials, product design and product quality requirements, as well as process specifications to develop competitive and reliable manufacturing methods, identifying requirements of productivity, flexibility and repeatability, and limitations concerning the process.
All this information is contained and expanded on the document “D1.1) Product and process requirements and specifications” that has been already submitted.

Task 1.2: Specifications of detailed systems requirements to join dissimilar materials (M1-M3)
The developer’s partners have collected information about the thermal joining process of dissimilar materials, focused especially on LTJ and the IJ techniques. This information includes the state of the art of the different techniques, variety of tools needed for their application, process and product requirements regarding the specific technology and requirements in process monitoring among others.
All this information is presented and discussed on “D1.2) Systems requirements and specifications” report that has been already submitted.

Task 1.3: Specification of test cases and selection of the suitable test methods (M2-M6)
A Test Plan has been created to evaluate the adhesion between the metallic and polymeric surfaces and contains a detailed specification for the test case sample and the tests methods that will be carried out. It is divided into two different phases:
• Phase 1: Test Plan for basic test samples which includes the objectives, scope, schedule, risks and approach of the experimentation for the first trials. The mechanical testing of the joins will be performed according to standards in order to determine the shear stress of relevant adhered materials, so the results can be compared with other joining procedures/technologies
• Phase 2: Test Plan for product test samples to evaluate the adhesion of the dissimilar materials in the final product of each end user and includes the specification of the test cases, the selection of the test methods, the specification of the proper evaluation criteria and strategies between others.

Task 2.1: Determination of relevant factors and its influence in material adhesion, identifying process limits and the behaviour of developed materials for LTJ and IJ methods. (M4-M18)
Different experimentations for joining metal-composite materials defined and produced in WP3 and lap shear tests have been performed by IVW, ÉIRE and TECNALIA in order to characterize the influence of different process parameters on joint adhesion.
As a result of this experimentation the influence of these main factors on adhesion as well as the optimal process parameters for defined material combinations was defined.

Task 2.2: Improvement of joint strength and process reliability. (M10-M28)
A variety of different surface treatments (sand blasting, laser structure, water jet, mechanical structuring) of the metallic joining partners have been tested. Most tested techniques generally improve the strength of the joint compared to degreasing. However, the most promising technologies are sand blasting (low cost) and laser surface texturing (very efficient).
Finally, the optimal joint configuration and joining strategy for both LTJ and IJ have been identified in order to allow the joining of the parts with the specific thermal technology, as well as the enhancement of mechanical adhesion by increasing the amount of thermoplastic trapped inside the metal surface.

Task 2.3: Development of computational models. (M7-M24)
A simulation of the induction joining process has been built up in order to be able to predict process parameters for different material combinations. To that, software using an explicit solver (LS Dyna) and software using an implicit solver (Comsol) were compared. Although LS Dyna appeared to be more promising regarding realistic modelling, Comsol was used due to LS Dyna’s excessive computation time of up to several days. Although Comsol is not able to model real movement, both continuous and discontinuous induction joining could be modelled using the eddy current heating and the heat transfer module .Good results could be obtained which increased the knowledge on the joining process. The model can be used to predict heating patterns of coil, gain insight on temperature distributions in the parts, analyze the influence of additional surface cooling, and many more.
LS-DYNA has been chosen for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of the laser joints because this program is capable of simulating complex real world problems.
A FE model of the coupon used for the lap shear test has been defined in order to characterize the mechanical behavior of the different tests performed during the project. A Tiebreak contact allows the transmission of both tensile and compressive forces and the separation of the slave node from the master is resisted by a linear contact spring for both tensile and compressive forces until failure after which the tensile coupling is removed. BREAK part of the contact allows the modelling of failure where the spring decouples the tensile forces allowing independent motion of the slave node under tension. A stress based failure strategy was also chosen. An iterate process was followed in order to get the correct parameters for the estimation of the mechanical behavior of the model. Results of the simulations show a similar mechanical behavior of the joint than real tests.
In conclusion, two different approaches to predict the results of thermal joining processes are shown. The process simulation focuses on the interaction of different process parameters to define a process window, in which a good bond quality can be achieved. The mechanical simulation represents the next step: simulating the behavior of the joint to be able to predict component behaviour. Since induction and laser joining are similar processes, both approaches could be transferred with minor adaption.

Task 3.1: Material selection. (M4-M8)
As a result of the products specification of WP1, a matrix has been completed with the pairs of dissimilar materials and the technologies defined for each industrial partner.
HBW has prepared a catalogue with suitable materials for basic test samples which is summarized in “D3.1) Catalogue and selection of suitable materials and fillers.”

Task 3.2: Physical characterization of materials (M4-M30)
After the design and production of basic test samples and improved materials (Task 3.3 and 3.4) the physical characterization of the plastic and metal components had been carried out by IVW, supported by TECNALIA, EIRE and HBW. The characterization of the materials includes the heating behaviour (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity), the melting behaviour (glass transition and melting temperature), the flow behaviour and wettability (viscosity, density respectively the content of additives and fillers), the limits of the welding process for temperature control and simulation (thermal stability, emissivity) and the mechanical behaviour. The mechanical characterization comprises the analysis of the surface finishing with 3D surface profiler, optical interferometer and white light profilometer.
The adhesion of the different materials was verified by tensile tests.
All this information is contained and expanded on the document “D3.3) Physical characterization of the developed materials” that has been already submitted.

Task 3.3: Lightweight design of samples and improved materials (M6-M30)
In case of the laser transmission joining (LTJ) TECNALIA performed several studies regarding the weldability of thermoplastic materials with additives and fillers (influence of different fibre volume contents of short glass fibres, woven fibre fabrics and colorants). In case of the induction joining (IJ) process investigations were executed by IVW and EIRE, especially with semi-finished products with a high fibre volume content.
The metal components had been prepared with different surface characteristics by TECNALIA, IVW and HBW to improve the wettability and adhesion of the different materials. The following methods and textures were examined: Acid aching, sandblasting, waterjet, laser surface texturing (donut texture, big point texture, double points texture, zigzag structure), laser remelting texture, laser cladding texture, electrical discharge machining texture, milling texture, drilling texture, knurling texture, plasma deposition, selected laser remelting, metal net welding, NRX structure and coniperf structure.
As a result it has to be mentioned that industrial requirements, especially aerospace and automotive, often include materials with a high fibre content and additives. No special modifications have been made to the plastic materials to change the basic mechanical performance or chemical composition as this would require re-qualification of the materials. For the joining of dissimilar materials technologies laser and induction joining is available, whereas laser transmission joining (LTJ) can be used for transparent materials. For the joining of non-transparent materials laser conduction joining (LCJ) or induction joining (IJ) is recommended. The bonding strength can be significantly affected through the appropriated processing parameters, by cleaning and degreasing of the surfaces, with a sufficient quantity of polymer in the joining zone and can be mainly influenced by a surface pre-treatment of the metal component.
All this information is contained and expanded on the document “D3.2) Development of new thermoplastic based composites” that has been already submitted.

Task 3.4: Production of test samples and representative test cases (M8-M30)
In addition to the investigations of the first period (M1-M17) test samples were produced for the process development within WP2 by IVW, TECNALIA, EIRE and HBW.
After the test phase, the most suitable materials and combinations thereof have been determined and defined for the test cases by each end-user (ELUX, INAUXA, EIRE, HBW). The plastic and metal components for the representative test cases were produced by the end-users. Because of the best bonding properties achieved by sandblasting and laser surface texturing, these pre-treatments for the metal components were selected and applied by IVW (sandblasting) and HBW (laser surface texturing). The joining of the dissimilar materials was performed by TECNALIA (laser joining), IVW (induction joining) and EIRE (induction joining).
The following test cases relating to the end-users were produced:
• ELUX: Arc of a tumble dryer drum.
• INAUXA: Stabilizer link.
• EIRE: L-pull specimen, impact specimen, access hole
• HBW: L-pull specimen, underbody shield

All this information is contained and expanded on the document “D3.4 Design and manufacturing of test samples and representative test cases” and has been already submitted.

Task 4.1: Development of new laser beam delivery optics and systems adapted for dissimilar material joining (M10-M22)
Based on the test cases defined in WP1, novel optics suited for joining dissimilar materials have been developed by LEISTER and tested by TECNALIA and LEISTER. The modular system of optical heads allows for adapting to different types of laser sources, as well as for swapping the beam-shaping module to generate spot-, line- or area-type laser beam shapes. This flexible system of optical heads is suited to adapt to the varying demands of dissimilar material joining.

Task 4.2: Development of new induction system for dissimilar materials joining (M10-M22)
A new induction joining system was developed that offers the opportunity to flexibly and reliably join metals and polymers. Thanks to its modular design, the needs of many different process configurations (e. g. continuous and discontinuous joining) can be met. All sensors necessary for process and quality control are integrated.
The new induction generator allows for mounting coils with various shapes and moreover has an integrated pyrometer based controller.
The process control and data acquisition software, specifically developed for the new induction system, ensures a reliable process of which all important parameters are monitored and stored.

Task 4.3: Development of specific clamping devices for laser joining of dissimilar materials (M16-M26)
Prototypes of novel clamping devices for laser hybrid joining were developed. These include clamping devices for flat, L-shape (HBW test case), and cylindrical (INAUXA test case) samples, as defined by end users in WP1. Also, a flexible clamping unit for robot arm mounting was developed. All the clamping units include process monitoring systems, such as pyrometer, force, and displacement sensors.

Task 4.4: Development of new clamping devices for induction joining process (M16-M26)
A new clamping device with increased flexibility was developed for induction joining. Tailored consolidation stamps or rollers can be mounted as well as customized tools. Differently shaped coils are adaptable, offering an induction process tailored to the demonstrator part’s geometry.

Task 4.5: Systems integration (M20-M30)
A prototype machine for laser joining (both transmission and non-transmission configuration) was developed and set up, integrating the new thermal management systems, optics, clamping devices, quality control systems, and GUI from the preceding tasks.
Likewise, an induction joining system was set up, offering a number of different consolidation stamps and rollers, as well as a temper device. Process control is possible by an IR camera, a pyrometer, and thermocouples, along with a PID controller controlling the output current.

Task 5.1: Quality assurance strategy. (M16-M24)
An analysis about the main important parameters affecting bonding quality for laser joining (temperature, optical properties of the material, pressure, roughness, thickness, path ,speed and number of repetitions) and induction joining (temperature, consolidation pressure and alignment) respectively has been carry on.
Also different process strategies for quality assurance have been developed:
• All technological partners have detected a better stability on the temperature control system by heating directly by the metallic size.
• TECNALIA has also implemented an acid treatment on Aluminum samples in order to improve the laser energy absorption, and has tested a cycle of temperature in order to reduce the cooling rate which improves the strength of the joint.
Finally a description of the selected equipment for the monitoring and control of these parameters has been included.
These information is exposed on deliverables “D5.1 Quality assurance strategies for LTJ process” and “D5.2.- Quality assurance strategies for IJ process”.

Task 5.2: Process supervision and control development and application for joining of dissimilar materials. (M16-M27)
All the technological partners have been developed and set-up means for on-line monitoring and process control, both for laser and induction joining:
In the case of laser joining, a supervision and control system with similar architecture has been implemented both in LESITER and TECNALIA facilities.
A pyrometer is focused at the same point of laser beam for the temperature close loop control.
To measure the pressure, a load cell is placed between the pneumatic cylinder and the base tooling. A proportional valve is positioned near the cylinder to control the output air-pressure through a PID controller. In order to monitor and supervise the flow of the melted material into the surface cavities, two displacement sensors have been positioned into the clamping device. They are focused in different edges of the base tooling where are positioned the parts to be joined. The flow of the melted material produces a reduction of thickness and consequently a displacement of the base tooling.
For induction joining (EIRE and IVW), a pyrometer and a IR camera are both directed at the coil to measure the temperatures near the coil during joining. The pyrometer is connected to a PID controller, which controls the output power of the generator. The load cell is mounted between pressure cylinder and roller and measured the consolidation force. Three cable actuated position sensors are integrated into the joining system to monitor the movement of the external circuit in all three spatial directions. The joining system is operated by a graphical user interface by which axis position, consolidation force, and generator current can be set.
The developed prototypes with their corresponding user manual for the proper use of the equipment which allows taking advantage of the developed system are collected on “D.5.3.- Dissimilar joining process supervision and control system”.

Task 5.3: Evaluation of process control systems for dissimilar material joining (M19-M30)
All the technological partners have been evaluated and validated the developed strategies and supervision and control systems on different materials combinations by testing them into artificially generated defects, as bubbles, burns and degraded material zones.
Also the quality report generated for laser joining has been tested by artificially produced defects.
During the evaluation and validation of the developed strategies and process control systems, it has been proved that the flowability of the PP difficult the control of the pressure and the supervision of the displacement sensors, as well as the short fibers and low temperature range of the PA66 difficult the temperature close control loop, so, depending on the material combination the quality control system will be more reliable.
It has been observed that the analysis of the quality results provided by the quality control system matches with the results of the strength tests , so we conclude that in general the quality control systems are operating as expected and they improves the strength of the joint and the reliability of the process.
“D5.4.- Evaluation of process control strategies for quality assurance” report describes in more detail all the information exposed above.

T6.1: Final validation according to test plan (M30-M36)
This task has focussed on activates targeted to perform validation tests and to achieve the technological assessment of Ybridio solutions. Activities have been initially consisted in the final design of tests cases and representative demonstrators, process that has implied the definition of the main technical aspects for each demonstrator varying from the geometry of parts, materials combination, surface treatment and the selection of the most suitable joining technique. The decisions have mainly based on the results deriving from RTD WPs activities. The successive realization of the demonstrators’ parts has been preliminary to the preparation of testing environments and to the execution of the joining tests in collaboration with technological partners. The refinement of appropriate testing plans to measure the fulfilment of initial industrial requirements has finally allowed the end users to execute the validation tests at their premises, to assess joining performance and to define optimized solutions. The deliverable D6.1:”Final validation according to the test plan” describes in details all the performed task activities. In the below list each test case, the demonstrators, the selected materials and the joining techniques are reported:
-- EIRE as end user has tested an aircraft panel. The representative demonstrator is L-pull specimens/impact specimens, the materials combination is titanium + peek + carbon fiber and the joining technique is the induction.
-- HBW as end user has tested a bumper bean. The representative demonstrator is L-pull specimens, the materials combination is PA6/GF (Tepex 120) + Steel or Aluminium and the joining technique is the induction.
-- HBW as end user has tested an underbody shield. The representative demonstrator is the same underbody shield, the materials combination is PP/GF (Symalite-GMT) + Steel and the joining technique is the induction.
-- INAUXA has end user has tested a stabilizer link. The representative demonstrator is a tube concept specimen, the materials combination is stainless steel + PA6, PA66, PA66/GF 30% and the joining techniques are the laser and the induction.
-- ELECTROLUX has end user has tested a tumble dryer drum. The representative demonstrator is a curved arc, the materials combination is PP + Stainless steel and the joining technique is the laser.

T6.2: Final analysis and evaluation (M25- M36)
The scope of this task has been the analysis of tests results and consequently, the performances of the proposed novel joining technologies to be then compared with alternative and existing methods as mechanical joining and adhesives bonding. The target has been also the assessment of the level of breakthroughs and improvements of the new methods in terms of cost effectiveness, flexibility, repeatability and product quality. Each end user, after the execution of validation tests, has in fact determined and quantified the possible advantages deriving by the use of hybrid materials (composites and metals) and by the possibilities to propose products and parts redesign in order to improve components weight, manufacturing time and cost saving. The different technologies (induction or laser) tested to join hybrid parts have allowed the validation of the solutions reliability and the possible technical applicability and transferring within each sector. Even though some technical problems as surface texturing, inaccurate positioning or not optimized parameters have been emerged during the tests, which have impeded to get conclusive results, the general outcomes of the project have been evaluated as rather positive, considering its research approach.

Task 7.1: Awareness and dissemination. (M1-M36)
At the start of the project, a definition of the external communication strategy and rules were made between all partners. The objectives for the dissemination activities and possible communication channels were fixed. All this information is contained and expanded on the document “(D7.1) Ybridio communication strategy”.
A dissemination plan was also made by EIRE. This plan defines the target audiences, support materials and activities in order to ensure maximum dissemination of project activities and results. The Dissemination plan was created during the previous reporting period. Partners were asked to supply details of any dissemination materials or events conducted since the previous report. Updates to the plan to include most recent dissemination events, Newsletter updates, LinkedIn and Website developments are included in the deliverable “D7.7) Dissemination Plan M36”.
TECNALIA and EIRE have updated the Newletter, website and LinkedIn page for the project with the most up date information regarding the project and its findings.
All dissemination materials and news can be found on the Ybridio website (
A list of all dissemination events attended by consortium members is included in Chapter 4.2 Section A, Template A2 of this document and the he list of publications made by the consortium members as part of the dissemination strategy is in the Template A1.

Task 7.2: Training courses and workshops. (M1-M36)
TECNALIA and EÍRE have prepared and sent a questionnaire to all partners in order to identify and analyze the current training needs and consequently develop a specific training programme that meets the requirements of all the Ybridio partners.
All this information is contained and expanded on the document “D7.10) Ybridio training programme” that has been already submitted.

Task 7.3: Industrial exploitation plan. (M1-M36)
TECNALIA and EÍRE have completed the final version of the Exploitation Plan M36. This plan includes the general exploitation strategy for the consortium as well as market and risk factor analysis.
An exploitation strategy seminar (ESS) was held during the M24 consortium meeting at ÉireComposites. The seminar was conducted by Mr. Tomasz Cichocki. During the seminar the consortium members derived and expanded some Key Exploitable Results (KERs) for their respective technologies/products. A full report was generated by Mr. Cichocki. The key points of this report are included in the deliverable “D7.9 – Ybridio Exploitation Plan M36”. All the KERs for Ybridio project are described in Section B, Part B2 of this document.

Task 7.4: IPR management. (M1-M36)
IPR management and discussions were held during the ESS at EireComposites and throughout the project. Agreements where necessary have been reached between consortium members. A detailed description of this task is available in “D7.7 Dissemination Plan M36” and “D7.9 Ybridio Exploitation Plan M36”.
Potential Impact:
The European Business environment has changed dramatically in recent years with cost reductions the number one priority across all major industries. As Europe aims to be as competitive as possible, it will need future technologies to compete on a global scale and the area of advanced materials is a sector that can have a large impact across many European industries. The use of composites will increase year on year by roughly 7% CAGR through to 2017 with widespread use already in military applications and in aerospace. A large part of this growth is expected to come in the form of thermoplastics as they offer more flexible solutions and satisfy environmental concerns for the future. However, in the future the use of composites will spread across mainstream sectors such as automotive, marine, construction, electronics and white goods where the use of composites will bring huge advantages to structures as their flexibility, strength and stiffness will offer designers huge benefits.
Fibre reinforced plastics have been growing in many industrial applications in Europe in recent years and demand will continue to rise. One of the major barriers to this growth in composites is the price of carbon fibre amongst other popular composites. Many analysts believe that the pricing of carbon fibre will eventually decrease as its use becomes more mainstreamed.
The potential of just a slight decrease in the price of composites (in general) provides an extremely positive view of the global composite market both in terms of monetary market value and also in the many industries and applications composites will find themselves in. Of course key to the Ybridio strategy are thermoplastics, but as major industries have been developing an understanding of composite structures and trust the technology, future generations of industrial structures can expect to be made from thermoplastics.
Key to the markets the Ybridio consortium is affected by is the plastics market in general. Plastic and polymer based composites provide the advantageous qualities many European industries are seeking in today’s market to provide strength, stiffness and impact resistance. Although plastic parts will be unable to substitute metal structures completely they offer numerous qualities to complement metals as metals are especially needed in situations in which mechanical forces vary considerably with direction and time. As the future of plastics to metals joining is critical to the project, the potential of plastic(s) structures to penetrate major markets is crucial to the success of Ybridio.
In recent years plastics production has increased greatly with the most rapid changes occurring outside Europe. The future of plastics will become a more dynamic one as the growth for hybrid materials has taken off in recent years, in order to slowly transition from conventional industrial materials European innovation will need to develop unique knowledge in this sector, particularly knowledge of dissimilar materials joining. If Europe is to be competitive in the future of hybrid advanced materials and materials joining it will have to develop new processes and technologies to become more efficient and competitive and Ybridio aims to satisfy these needs.
The worldwide demand for plastics will be one of the key determining factors in the success of the Ybridio project. Estimations suggest that the use of engineering thermoplastics in exterior automotive applications to grow by 4.8% annually through 2011, which currently equates to more than 450 million kilograms per year. This figure is expected to have reached more than 585 million kilograms annually. Overall, growth in automotive plastics use has been progressed from a typical 27 kg per vehicle in 1970 to more than 162 kg today (Donald V. Rosato, “Plastics End Use Applications” year 2011, page. 50). The aircraft industry is a good example of how plastics and design innovation are connected. Since the 70's, the use of fibre-reinforced plastics in aircraft indeed grew from 4 to almost 30%, and should reach 50% by 2013 (Source: PlasticsEurope 2011). The numerous advantages that thermoplastics hold will help the industry gain market share in the near future providing opportunities for Ybridio members to commercialise the knowledge gained during the project.
The following list shows the exploitation sector and future results for each company:
-- EIRE: Project results will help Eire enhance its aerospace potential through IJ and develop its customer base.
-- TECNALIA: Consumer Goods & Automotive specialist will allow Tecnalia to gain a market share in laser joining technologies in the automotive and consumer goods.
-- INAUXA: Results will allow Inauxa to improve the joining methods it provides to its customers in the transport industry.
-- IVW: Ybridio project results will allow IVW to provide professional consultancy and support for induction joining technologies and also computational models.
-- HBW: Laser joining techniques will support HBW’s automotive, consumer and plastics goods industries allowing for greater weight savings through advanced joints. Exploitable results include specific transport area improvements for dissimilar material joining in the transport sector.
-- ELECTROLUX: The novel dissimilar materials joining will help Electrolux improve their cost efficiency in the white goods sector.
-- LEISTER: Leister will aim to improve its Laser Joining services and tap into the future of dissimilar materials joining.

• Ybridio results were presented at the following fairs and congresses:−
- 'Industrial Summit 2013’ fair on the 1st – 4th of October 2013 in Bilbao Spain
- ‘Innnorobo 2014’ fair, 18th – 20th March 2014 in Lyon France
- ‘Salon Industrie 2014’ fair, 31th of March – 5th of April 2014 in Paris France
- SAFEJOINT conference workshop on dissimilar materials joining on July 2014 in Athens Greece
- Conference: A further look at Advanced Multimaterial Structures in the Automotive Industry, 23rd January 2015, Spain.
- Conference presentation at SPIE Photonics West, February 2015, San Francisco, USA.
- JEC Europe, 10th – 12th March 2015, Pairs, France.
- Joining in car body Engineering at the Automotive Circle International, 24th-26th March 2015, Bad Nauheim, Germany.
- 4.VDI Fachtagung Composites effizient verarbeiten, 14-16th April 2015, Nürnberg, Germany
- Materials in Car Body Engineering, 22nd- 23rd April 2015, Bad Nauheim, Germany.
- Conference presentation at JNPLI Journées Nationales des Procédés Laser pour l'Industrie (JNPLI), 28-30.04.2015 Nantes, France.
- IVW Colloquium 2015 – 25 years of IVW, 10th-11th June 2015, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
- Live demo presentation at LASER World of Photonics Congress, June 2015, Munich Germany.
- Paris Air Show, June 2015, Paris, France.
- World of Photonics Congress - Lasers in Manufacturing (LiM), 21st-25th June 2015, Munich, Germany.
- International Conference of Composite Material (ICCM 20), 19th- 24th July 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Werkstoffwoche, 14th-17th September 2015, Dresden, Germany.
- Sampe Europe conference, 15th-17th September, Amiens.
- AVK Conference, 21st- & 22nd Sept. 2015, Stuttgart, Germany.
- Conference presentation at ALasKA seminar, 24-25 September 2015, Aachen, Germany.
- International Workshop of PMjoin: Project Building the future of polymer and metal laser joining in Europe, 17 th November 2015, Martos, Spain.
- Interview to Fernando Liébana. Written article in a two-per-month magazine. , 15 th December 2015, Spain.
- JEC Europe, 8th – 10th March 2016, Paris, France.
- EuroHybrid, 21-22 April 2016, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
- 29 BIEMH (International Machine-Tool Exhibition), 30th May – 4th June 2016, Vizcaya, Spain.
- ECCM, 17th June 2016, Munich, Germany.
- Farnborough Air Show, 11th -15th July 2016, Farnborough, UK.
- K-Messe – plastic processing companies exhibition, 19-26th October 2016, Dusseldorf, Germany.

• Website:
As one of the most important dissemination mediums, the Ybridio website has been constantly updated with different project news and this will active for a period after the end date of the project. Key to our analysis here is when and where the traffic is coming from and who the visitors are? Once we evolve and define these performance indicators we will know a lot more about our progression as a project and the effectiveness of our communication.

• LinkedIn:
As LinkedIn is one of the key social media sites, the Ybridio LinkedIn page has been monitored throughout the project lifetime. Key to our performance here is how many contacts does the consortium have? Where are our contacts from? What industries do they represent? How many are in regular contact with the consortium?

• Events:
As the consortium attends various conferences and industry shows, knowing what to expect from these events is important when dissemination is concerned. The consortium is very active with the joining community around Europe and we are always looking to attend conferences and events related to our subject area. Selecting the right events is crucial for targeting industry leaders and decision makers.

• Publications:
Publications will also provide a key method of disseminating project results but the project must select carefully the channels it wishes to use and the timing of the publications. With such a large and diversified group dissemination through publications will need to be carefully thought out.
Over 10 papers have been published and presented at conferences on Ybridio activities with more publications planned to include final project results.

• Exploitation results:
This section presents the Ybridio consortium’s technology, and also a view of the products and services the Ybridio consortium will commercialise and licence.
The Ybridio project can be viewed through two technologies, Laser joining and Induction welding. These two joining technologies are the focus of the programme’s exploitation potential and the key to the project’s results. Ybridio aims to make the technologies of laser joining and induction welding the common joining process of hybrid metal-thermoplastic structures across major industries. There is a wide consensus that there must be significant advancements made in joining technology in order to supply the next generation of technology in Europe. For years adhesive bonding, bolting and riveting have made up the majority of joining processes throughout the world but as new materials come to market such as composites and in particular thermoplastic composites, new joining methods must be used in order to best fit new materials and complement the joining to metal parts.
Ybridio will offer expertise in the use of Laser joining and Induction joining in order to help the uptake of these processes as new materials begin to penetrate key European markets in the near future. Key to this uptake strategy of the Ybridio’s joining technology is effective training of industry leaders and decision makers; this will allow potential end users to see the huge benefits Ybridio’s research can bring to production lines.
The use of composites is growing rapidly, particularly in the aerospace and automotive sectors with particular attention being paid to thermoplastic composites which offer many advantages over thermoset components such as recyclability, impact properties, shelf life, flexibility and adaptability over their life time. With Ybridio’s products and services, the consortium will be optimally positioned to take advantage of growing needs for the joining of exotic and more advanced materials such as hybrid metal-thermoplastic structures.

Below is a list outlining the products and services available for commercialisation. Each of these products and services is named “exploitable result” (ER):
-- ER1: Introduction of new joining techniques (IJ -LJ) and adoption of suitable thermoplastic materials to support these techniques within the white goods sector. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, HBW, LEISTER., ELUX and INAUXA. The main risks to be addressed are partnership risk factors, market risk factors and technology risk factors.
-- ER2: Realise the connection between metal and plastic components with a robust and fast joining method without any additional materials to get products with a high functional integration. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership/single engagement. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, IVW and HBW. The main risks to be addressed are technology risks factors, market risks factors, partnership risk factors and financial risk factors.
-- ER3: Capability to offer a new product to market, new concepts. . IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, IVW, HBW and INAUXA. The main risks to be addressed will be analysed after project end.
-- ER4: Increasing of knowledge on induction joining, especially regarding a continuous hybrid process and surface texturing. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, IVW, HBW, LEISTER and INAUXA. The main risks to be addressed will be analysed after project end.
-- ER5: Laser joining of hybrid materials provides new technical capabilities within the company and provides new applications in automotive, aerospace, electronics and whitegood industries. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership/single engagement. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, IVW, HBW, LEISTER and ELUX. The main risks to be addressed are technology risk factors, market risk factors, partnership risk factors and financial risk factors.
-- ER6: Integrated quality control module for laser plastic-metal joining. The system will monitor and control the required parameters in order to obtain the required quality on plastic-metal joints. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership/single engagement. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA and LEISTER. The main risk to be addressed are technology risk factors, financial risk factors, market risk factors, partnership risk factors and IPR risk factors.
-- ER7: Complete laser cell for automated joining of plastic-metal materials. It includes laser system, robot to guide the beam, clamping device and quality control unit for quality assurance. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, HBW, LEISTER and INAUXA. The main risk to be addressed are technology risk factors, financial risk factors, market risk factors, partnership risk factors and IPR risk factors.
-- ER8: Induction Joining possibilities expanded within the company with aerospace joining projects being undertaken. IPR owners of the ER: Joint ownership/single engagement. The partners planning to exploit this ER are TECNALIA, IVW, HBW, INAUXA and EIRE. The main risks to be addressed will be analysed after project end.

Products and services developed during the Ybridio project will help potential end users optimize productivity and efficiency through Laser and Induction joining methods along with additional services such as on-line process control systems developed by Tecnalia, efficient time saving computational models developed by IVW and optics for laser beam delivery developed by Leister. Along with products and services developed by the consortium as a whole such as flexible Laser joining and Induction machines and the very best material knowledge needed to complement the Joining services, the products developed by the consortium offer a wide range of solutions to perspective OEM’s interested in using the technology, methods and materials researched by the Ybridio members.
The many positives the Ybridio consortium holds in order to gain effective commercialisation from key industries and sell its products and services lies at the core of the consortium group. Large companies such as HBW, Electrolux and Inauxa will take up the project results and processes with the aim of improving their production lines with numerous key benefits outlined in the individual business models in the following section. The remaining companies such as Tecnalia, ÉireComposites, Leister and IVW will give added process and materials experience in order to find the most appropriate methods for use in commercialisation for all the parties involved in the consortium. This mix of various key industries represented by the consortium and wide range of specialities developed by the members offers many unique selling points for the products and services to be made commercially available by consortium members.

• Individual Business Models:
The business plan for the dissemination and exploitation for the Ybridio project will centre on how each individual participant can exploit the results of their research and disseminate the project to the industries involved in the consortium including aerospace, white goods, automotive and electronics amongst others. Each individual participant has their own priority goals and sectors in which they hope to operate in during and after the results of the Ybridio project become public. This business plan will demonstrate how the results and participants as a group will fit together for the ultimate exploitation of the project be it through commercialisation, licensing or royalties in the thermoplastic composite sector. Each of the individual Ybridio consortium members has specific goals, skills and knowledge in their respective industries and the business model of the consortium very much depends upon individual targets and success in the broad range of industries the consortium works in. Effective exploitation in the range of industries outlined will help Ybridio attain mainstream success and of course success for all the participating partners in the fields of laser joining and induction welding. The individual business models outlined will work on an industry, material, and joining process level with a common business strategy throughout.

- Tecnalia will hope to exploit its laser welding capabilities hoping to become a leader in laser joining services for the joining of hybrid materials. Part of the Tecnalia expertise in the consortium will be to organise all training based activities which are crucial to maximum exploitation of the project results. Tecnalia will hope to be able to commercialise on-line process control and supervision systems based on IR and NIR pyrometer and thermal cameras which will enhance Laser joining systems to optimise production and ensure quality standards. Through detailed research Tecnalia will hope to create new knowledge of dissimilar materials adhesion mechanisms and joint behaviour (in particular metal-thermoplastic composites), researching the interaction between laser/induction and the composite materials with the goal of penetrating a wide range of industries. Tecnalia will aim to use its training experience to enhance the exploitation potential of the consortium in educating about Laser and Induction joining to small and medium sized OEM’s and large industrial organisations targeted through the project. As the processes being used in the project are relatively new and foreign to most organisations effective training through workshops and conferences will provide the most important form of dissemination to the project which is education to key decision makers.
- IVW’s strategy will be based on its research based skillset with the expectation of offering joint consulting and manufacturing services to primarily the aerospace and automotive industries. IVW is ideally positioned to take advantage of its research centre to offer services on induction welding to a range of potential clients with a focus on the automotive industry. With state of the art technology and advanced materials knowledge IVW will target new industrial projects using updated Induction welding systems with the hope of adding valuable services to enhance the reliability and usability of Induction welding operations. Such services include new clamping systems and which will lead to reliability improvements and computational models to simulate heat distribution in the machines as well as the joining geometry.
- HBW’s role as a leading end user in the Ybridio consortium allows it to explore the joining of various material combinations for the white goods and automotive market. HBW’s manufacturing line includes a wide range of products from plastic panels, interiors, guide rails to light conductors and TV headphone sets. Carbon Fibre focus and Car Body Engineering and Joining in Car Body Engineering. The company is particularly interested in targeting plastic-metals combinations will do a research on the performance of the direct welding of joints between metal and plastic. HBW’s overall goal will be to explore unique plastic-metal combinations in order to find the best materials to suit its automotive processes and systems in order to provide additional weight savings to customers and improve present bonding strength.
- Leister’s model will target a more widespread use of its laser joining services. Leister will hope that through the results attained in the Ybridio project it will be able to replace and/or supplement some existing technologies with laser joining for the white goods industry. With a focus on its laser plastic welding business Leister will be well positioned to offer services regarding laser plastic welding as it has been operating in the plastics industry for many years and as more hybrid metal to composite/plastic materials become widespread Leister will have the necessary know how and production experience to exploit this. The company will also be able to sell advanced laser systems for dissimilar materials joining plus optics and beam manipulation systems. With the market to join plastics-plastics and metals –metals reaching over several billion euro’s Leister will aim to be at the forefront of dissimilar material laser joining processes and services in the future.
- Electrolux will aim to increase its positioning in the international white goods market. The added skill-set attained through the Ybridio project will enable Electrolux to take advantage of the innovative joining processes to increase its product range. By positioning itself in a project such as Ybridio, Electrolux will be able to explore innovative joining techniques best suited to its materials and goods. With the need to focus on flexible processes, cost effective materials and new products constantly Electrolux will aim to eventually realise cost savings with the need to eradicate waste materials, bolts and screws being used in its goods at the moment. By acting as one of the large OEM’s in the consortium the choices made by Electrolux may provide to be of great benefit to the consortium as it is representing an industry on its own and thus the project results it deems most attractive will prove to be of great benefit to the rest of the consortium when exploitation and dissemination is involved.
- Inauxa will aim to use the Ybridio project results to maximize its automotive manufacturing potential. As the use of composites increases in the automotive sector it will take time for complete replacement of metals to composites and thus the competitive advantages gained in effectively joining hybrid metal to composite parts will allow Inauxa great benefits in the automotive industry. As automotive parts often have multiple materials comprising the structure the need to advance the joining systems currently used such as adhesive bonding has never been greater. Inauxa’s business model, as a large OEM, will centre on the results of its preferred materials of choice for bonding be it through Induction or Laser and thus choosing the optimal process and material best suited to weight savings and strength gains the company hopes to achieve.
As with most automotive focused companies in Europe the need to save weight and maintain/gain strength is becoming essential to optimal production.
It is expected that Inauxa will use new products for the automotive sector with a focus in chassis components using Ybridio joining technology. These new components must achieve a form of weight saving in order to Inauxa to keep up industrial trends and environmental policies. Finally a decrease in the manufacturing costs up to 10% for the selected components couples with an increase in manufacturing productivity using Laser/Induction technology.
- ÉireComposites will focus its efforts on maximum exposure in the aerospace industry with the hope of being a leading SME in the area of hybrid materials induction joining processes. ÉireComposites will take advantage of key links with aerospace manufacturers such as Airbus and Bombardier with the hope of being a lead supplier of large scale future induction joining services. Services may initially include consulting and knowledge sharing of hybrid materials joining using induction welding and lead to manufacturing supply of induction welded hybrid metal to thermoplastic joints for large scale aircraft deployment.
The knowledge gained throughout Ybridio will help ÉireComposites further develop its aerospace capabilities not to mention other markets it hopes to enter with Induction joining services. As ÉireComposites already produces thermoplastic structures in house which need to be joined to other materials such as metals or other plastics and composites the Ybridio project will help the company expand its customer and project base. The new capabilities and knowledge acquired through Ybridio will see ÉireComposites hope to use its new Induction welding system in future operations and projects with clients such as ESA and Bombardier Aerospace. Key to ÉireComposites strategy in exploitation will centre on its use of Carbon fibre-PEEK materials in aerospace as the knowledge gained through tests and trials in Ybridio could prove invaluable in the future as joining of dissimilar materials using new systems grow.

List of Websites: