Final Activity Report Summary - RECSOILCARBON (Recovery and enhancement of soil carbon pool (in both organic and inorganic forms) in arid and semi-arid regions, via different agricultural practices) The overall objective of the research project was to develop rain-fed agricultural management strategies that provide the greatest support to carbon sequestration (in both organic and inorganic forms) in soils from semi-arid and arid regions. The specific objectives of the study are to examine: 1) the accumulation of organic carbon in the soil; 2) the amount of carbon sequestration in inorganic forms; 3) the CO2 partial pressure in the soil and sub-soil; and 4) to examine the exchange of CO2 between the soil and the atmosphere, all of these under different types of land management (e.g conventional vs. conservation tillage; fertilisation vs. no fertilisation), and precipitation gradient (arid vs. semiarid). Our research has showed that the highest CO2 consecration in the soil is below the main root zoon of a number of plants, including orchards and filed crops. The C02 concentration in the soil found as a parameter for soils aeration. Our measurements show that under no till managements the soil aeration better than under conventional tillage managements. Moving towards low to no-till practices will help improve soil quality fertility sustainability.