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Implementation of activities described in the Roadmap to Fusion during Horizon 2020 through a Joint programme of the members of the EUROfusion consortium

Periodic Reporting for period 8 - EUROfusion (Implementation of activities described in the Roadmap to Fusion during Horizon 2020 through a Joint programme of the members of the EUROfusion consortium)

Reporting period: 2021-01-01 to 2021-12-31

An ambitious yet realistic roadmap to fusion electricity by 2050 was adopted by EFDA at the end of 2012 in line with the European Commission proposal for the EURATOM programme in Horizon 2020. In 2018, the fusion roadmap has been updated considering several events and developments such as the revised ITER schedule towards first plasma and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) operation; the development of the Early Neutron Source to test materials for DEMO and power plants; and next steps to be taken to address the challenges in the field of plasma exhaust physics. This programme has the goal of implementing the activities described in the Roadmap during Horizon 2020 through a joint programme of the members of the EUROfusion Consortium. Since 2014, EUROfusion is coordinating all design and fusion R&D activities in Europe aimed at a pre-concept design of a Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO) considered to be the next reactor design to follow ITER and capable of producing electricity whilst operating with a closed fuel-cycle and facilitating the development from ITER to a commercial reactor.
The detailed preparation of the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) campaign at JET was carried out together with the execution of the first part of the Tritium campaign which included Tritium experiments directly supporting and minimising the risks of the D-T experiments. In parallel, analysis and modelling work continued including progress in the Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) modelling analysis of JET Shattered Pellet Injection experiments carried out in 2019 and 2020.
The investigation of Plasma-Facing Components for ITER has completed the analyses of all plasma-facing components including inner wall cladding and wall probes from all three JET-ILW campaigns with the determination of the complete material migration pattern over the whole operation until October 2016 and the completion of the fuel retention studies, i.e. the determination of the distribution and quantification of fuel accumulation in all regions of JET in order to provide best possible predictions regarding inventory in ITER. The properties and the quantification of the amount of dust and its generation mechanisms was concluded, including the impact of additional off-normal events like water and air leaks.
Regarding the JT-60SA tokamak enhancements activities, selected procurement projects were funded and carried out jointly by F4E and EUROfusion with a system delivered to Japan and installed on the machine for use in the commissioning phase as the main visualisation tool of the first plasmas. The design phase has been completed for the other projects or are very close to completion and the industrial call for tenders have been issued and some industrial contracts have been placed.
DEMO related activities related to the pre-concept design and R&D continued in the areas of:
• Magnets with the preparation of two new conductor samples together with tests in the SULTAN facility;
• Breeding Blanket with experimental campaigns at various facilities and the characterisation of subsystems;
• Divertor with the completion of further design studies for alternative design/cooling options and extended high and medium heat flux testing campaigns at the GLADIS, HADES and HIVE facilities and the development of tungsten armour for the limiter plasma facing component and completion of flow-assisted corrosion tests;
• Tritium, fuelling and vacuum systems with experimental campaigns on performance demonstration of the novel membrane-coupled temperature swing absorption process for isotope separation and protium removal;
• Balance of Plant with the design update of the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System and completion of the improved Water Cooled Lithium Lead Balance of Plant Direct Small Energy Storage, and activities with industry and
• Remote Maintenance with the development of a structural simulator and its integration with the adaptive positional control systems.
As for the activities linked to the development of a Neutron source for materials irradiation (IFMIF-DONES) the design of several of IFMIF-DONES systems were reviewed and major modifications proposed. The IFMIF/EVEDA LIPAc final commissioning activities were completed and the critical IFMIF-DONES Preliminary Engineering Design Report was finalised.