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a LOW environmental impact BRAke SYStem

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - LOWBRASYS (a LOW environmental impact BRAke SYStem)

Reporting period: 2017-03-01 to 2019-02-28

Airborne particulate matter (PM or PM10 in the following) influences air quality and it consists of chemical compounds suspended in the atmosphere as aerosols. In the road sector PM is a consequence of exhaust emissions and some friction processes like braking and tyre-road contact. Brake wear is estimated to contribute approximately 16-55% by mass to non-exhaust emissions in urban locations (Grigoratos and Martini, 2014).
The LOWBRASYS project aims at: i) demonstrating a novel and low environmental impact brake system that will reduce micro and nanoparticles emissions coming from the vehicle braking action by at least 50%; ii) measuring and understanding of micrometer-sized and ultrafine particles and their effects on health and the environment will be improved; iii) providing recommendations to policy makers.
This goal will only be achievable by a systematic and structured approach focused by the LOWBRASYS team on the following targets:

1. Novel materials formulations of the brakes pad and disc in order to reduce the total particle emissions and have a low-environmental impact.
2. Innovation of environmental friendly braking strategies (control systems) that reduce PM emissions.
3. Breakthrough technology for collection of particles near the PM source in order to further dramatically reduce PM emissions.
5. System integration of the novel pad, components and control systems in vehicles.
6. Improvement of the measurement techniques and understanding of the brake wear PM effects on health and the environment through state-of-the-art non-in-vivo techniques and related policy recommendations.
From M1 to M42 the partners worked on the main following targets and objectives:

1- Novel materials formulations of the brakes pad and disc: For a passenger car application, the partners completed two development loops on the formulation of novel brake pads and novel brake discs. The second development loop in particular was focused on the improvement of environmentally friendly material formulations. Numerical simulations both at the mesoscale level and at the macroscale level were also performed.

2- Innovation of environmental friendly braking strategies: The consortium implemented the software functions for dynamic assisted braking strategies on the selected passenger car vehicle, and the human-machine interface (HMI) smart dashboard was developed.

3- Breakthrough technology for capturing particles near the PM source – i.e. the brake system: The project engineered, for the light duty track vehicle reference application, the best raked concept with the aim to capture particles once they are generated.

4- System integration and testing: Activities were dedicated to the ranking at the pin-on-disc level of 5 tribo-couples for the second development loop, and the testing at the brake dynamometric level of the best material. At the dynamometric test set-up level was also tested the particle capturing system, the software functions for environmental friendly braking strategies, and the correction to the braking style coming from the smart dashboard. The 3 Lowbrasys vehicles were equipped with the different Lowbrasys solutions for the assessing at the vehicle level during rolling chassis test sessions, test track events, and public road demonstrations. The demo-vehicles were equipped with two different concept set-ups for particle measurements.

5- Improvement of the measurement techniques and understanding of the brake wear PM effects on health and the environment: The collected particles were chemically analyzed and their size and distribution granulometry determined, while the tribo-layers were investigated. The defined complete set of tests for assessing the toxicology and eco-toxicology of the emitted brake particles was used for assessing the novel material solution emission, while only a sub-set of tests was used in the case of the second development loop developed materials. An atmospheric dispersion model for the emitted particles was modelled considering a real European urban scenario. A deposition model for human lungs was considered having as inputs both the particle distribution size properties, and the atmospheric dispersion model. A Life Cycle Assessment and a Life Cycle Cost Assessment were carried out. Finally the policy recommendations were given.
Overview of the results. The Lowbrasys solutions, once tested at the brake dynamometer test set-up level, contributed differently to particulate mass (PM) and particulate number (PN) reduction according to the table 1 below.
The LOWBRASYS project promised a radical step forward in the European automotive sector, by designing, developing, testing and validating an innovative braking system able to drastically reduce the PM emissions (target at least 50%, in number and mass) while improving its performance, durability and reliability. The proposed LOWBRASYS solution brought relevant impacts at different levels, the main ones being:
- Innovation and Advance of Knowledge: the LOWBRASYS integrated braking system is the sum of a set of innovative components, materials, control systems, etc., as a result of a concerted collaboration among major players of the EU automotive industry. Important advancements were achieved in extremely important knowledge areas related to: the braking system and the way PM are generated and propagated (i.e. tribology); material science (e.g. coatings, disc and friction materials, etc.), with particular focus on combined effects at different levels (from single component to final braking system on vehicles); better understanding on the effects on human health of very complex phenomena at micro and nano -scale (i.e UFP). The innovations and advance of knowledge brought by the project can be also used for future applications in the automotive sector and beyond.
- Market & Competitiveness: The novel system has had the advantage to contribute to the strengthening of the competitiveness and growth of EU companies by developing innovations that have met the needs of EU and global markets, and by being ready to deliver the LOWBRASYS innovation to the market with a coherent strategy led by prime industrial actors in the sector (part of the LOWBRASYS Team). The project was able to substantially advance the level of competitiveness of the partners and the EU automotive industry in all the value chain (component manufacturers, materials developers, technology providers, car manufacturers, etc.).

- Health: the substantial reduction of emission of PM in mass and numbers has the potential to be translated into reduction of impact on human health with related socio-economic benefits for EU society.

- Environment: the project had demonstrated to have the potential to improve air quality (lowering PM emissions), ecosystem impacts, waste avoiding, and resource efficiency.

- Policies and Directives: LOWBRASYS technology is candidate to become Best Available Technology (BAT) and serve as a basis to support preparation of robust measurement standards and Legislations on non-exhaust PM emissions (where no current legislation is currently applicable). Moreover, is expected that the project will contribute to bridge the transition to zero emission vehicles in urban agglomerations, as well as to 'Super Low Emission Vehicles' standards towards lower PM-emissions and understanding of fundamental processes affecting brake wear particle formation, including ultrafine particles (UFP).