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Waste Heat Recovery for Power Valorisation with Organic Rankine Cycle Technology in Energy Intensive Industries

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - TASIO (Waste Heat Recovery for Power Valorisation with Organic Rankine Cycle Technology in Energy Intensive Industries)

Reporting period: 2017-06-01 to 2019-05-31

TASIO project has been focused on the recovery and reuse of waste heat produced in Energy Intensive Industries (EII) through the development of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology incorporating the direct heat exchange concept. The main aim has been to develop a multisectorial technology that can be used in EII such as cement, glassmaking, steelmaking and petrochemical companies and to set up an industrial-scale demonstrator in one cement producing industrial site to validate the developed concepts.

The final solution has been designed after an evaluation of the energetic situation of the mentioned four industrial sectors and has been based on the development of Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) based on the ORC technology. This technology is able to recover and transform the thermal energy of the flue gases of EII into electric power for internal or external use. In the direct exchange concept, heat from the flue gases is directly put in contact with the organic fluid of the ORC system. The conventional step of exchanging this heat with a thermal fluid located before the ORC is eliminated with the aim of increasing the yield of the process and reducing the cost of installation and maintenance. Furthermore, the project has also evaluated the possibility of using the conventional ORC process to recover and transform the energy of the flue gases of EII into mechanical energy for internal use (air compressors).
Work performed and main results achieved in the first 30 months (December 2014- May 2017)

The report contains the summary of the work and results corresponding to the first 30 months of the project. The technical milestones have been achieved and not any technical deviation is foreseen. Following the main aspects approached in each of the workpackages is described.

WP1 Management and Coordination
The main issue related to coordination was the substitution of one of the original participants Holcim-Romania by the Italian company Cementi Giovanni Rossi due to the internal reorganization of the former following the merge of Holcim and Lafarge companies.

WP2 Evaluation of heat recovery potentials in EII.
This task has been finished on time. The main conclusions obtained are that the potential of the plants for energy savings is enormous and it is estimated that somewhere between 20 to 50% of industrial energy input is lost as waste heat in the form of hot exhaust gases, cooling water, and heat lost from hot equipment surfaces and heated products.

WP3 Development of a new generation of ORC turbogenerators
The workpacakge is finished and the four technical reports associated with it include the list and analysis of the requirements of the ORC turbogenerator for EII Processes, the analysis of materials and coatings for the heat exchanger.

WP4Advanced monitoring & control systems
The new WHRS concept may require different monitoring and control systems due to the new process conditions that the ORC equipment must withstand derived from the direct contact of hot (300-450ºC) and corrosive dusty flue gases coming from the flue gases of the EII processes. The work related to control and monitoring concluded in 2017.

WP5 Design and integration of the waste heat recovery system
During the last 12 months the simulation of the whole WHRS cycle performance has been done and subsequently the final design was finished.

WP6 Design and concept validation of the WHRS for air compressors Energy supply
During 2016 the transmission system was set up, the pilot ORC equipment was adapted and demonstration and validation of the concept at pilot plant scale trials were performed.

WP7 Validation and demonstration of the WHRS in Real Production conditions.
So far task 7.1 devoted to the design of the validation trials and adaptation of the existing industrial cement plant belonging to Cementi Rossi in Piacenza is finished and the work is now focused on task 7.2 dealing with the fabrication of the new ORC prototype with the DHE concept incorporated.

WP8 : Analysis of the replicability and adaptability of the developed technology to different sectors
The use of direct heat exchange ORC for electricity production has been analysed, as case study, for petrochemical sludge gasification. A model of the whole process has been realized and has been tuned with data arising from experimental campaign on CSM 50kg/h pilot plant. Subsequently the model has been scaled up in case of an industrial plant scale of 2000kg/h. Eventually the Cost-Volume-Profit analysis has shown that main factors, influencing the payback time, are: size of the plant, type of application, electric energy price and working hours.

WP9: Dissemination, exploitation and IPR strategies
During the last year the activities in dissemination and exploitation issues have got increased in agreement with the technical development of a preliminary exploitation strategy for the future implementation of the TASIO project outcomes has been developed and discussed. 4 main exploitable results have been identified. During the last months an intense activity aimed to disseminate TASIO project was made though the support of GEONARDO, in particular via Twitter.
The TASIO website ( ) has been continuously updated paying a special attention to the public section of the website. The number of public deliverables was increased during the process of the amendment request and approval. Eventually 11 deliverables are foreseen to be public. It is worth mentioning that there is also a section devoted to the “Special Interest Group” webpage (www.tasioh2020. eu/special-interest-group) where persons and organizations interested in TASIO project can confirm their interest compiling a form to get in touch with the consortium and take part to the TASIO Special Interest Group. 6 people form this group so far but more people would be much welcome to it.

Public Website
The concept of the ORC technology with direct heat exchange for Energy Intensive Industries has been validated. A real scale industrial demonstrator has been installed in the facilities of a cement producing plant in Piacenza (Italy). The validation tests have shown that this unit is capable of producing up to 2 MWe through the recovery and transformation of waste heat produced in cement making processes.

The cost analysis of the direct ORC for the industrial/pilot application in the TASIO project has been done, the results of this analysis are:

.- The Total Capex Indirect Exchange (ORC+heat recovery system) in the range of 2.2-3.3 M€/MW

.- The operating expenditure in the range of 1-1.5% of capex for the direct exchange whilst the operating cost for the indirect exchange is higher: 1.5-2% of the capex.

The main benefits of the direct ORC in comparison with a conventional ORC system are:
• more compact layout,
• avoiding the intermediate heat carrier loop that means,
• lower investment for the whole plant,
• higher electrical net output (up to 15%),
• lower operation and maintenance cost due to less auxiliaries involved.