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Fidelity and Uncertainty in Climate data records from Earth Observations

Deliverables

AVHRR/HIRS best-estimate FCDR

HIRS FCDR The task is to create FCDR radiances for the infra-red (IR) of HIRS, harmonised along each sensor series. This will involve an assessment of the current operational algorithm using AIRS, IASI and simulated radiances as references and will also include a study on the impact of any non-linearity in the system. Spectral Response Function shifts will also be investigated and parameterised and uncertainties on the final radiances will be generated using the methods of WP 2. For the humidity sounding channels the UTH team (lead by UoH) will evaluate the new calibration. FCDR will then be converted to new easy-use FCDR format. AVHRR FCDR Apply best practice geolocation and ensure complete collocation record with reference sensors (AIRS/IASI/(A)ATSR). Collocate AVHRR with HIRS for all sensors and AVHRR with AVHRR (overlaps) and determine calibration parameters (fundamental from overlaps and time varying from HIRS). Obtain reflectance channel calibration from external projects (Cloud-CCI/SCOPE-CM). Reformat recalibrated AVHRR (both reflectance and IR) into new FCDR format. Create AVHRR/HIRS ensemble for uncertainty assessment.

FIDUCEO Albedo and Aerosol CDR from Meteosat-5 and -7

This task will demonstrate the benefit of the recovered VIS band SRF on aerosol and surface albedo retrieval over land and sea surfaces. For that purpose, an advanced joint aerosol properties - surface reflectance retrieval algorithm will be developed to fully benefit from the recovered spectral response. A case study will be processed covering years 2004 to 2006. During that period comparisons will be made with other products. The new product derived from Meteosat-7 will be derived with and without accounting for the improved spectral response to illustrate the resulting benefit of the proposed new approach. The aerosol/surface albedo CDR will be generated with Meteosat-5 and -7 observations.

FIDUCEO AVHRR Aerosol dataset over Europe/Northern Africa

An AVHRR aerosol retrieval over land will be made using a retrieval method adapted from AATSR where an AEROCOM/AERONET based climatology of mixing basic aerosol components will be used to prescribe the aerosol type. This will be processed over a 10 year timescale from AVHRR LAC (1km) over Europe and Northern Africa on board different platforms. Results will be validated on level 2 by comparing to AERONET ground-based sun photometer observations and compared to other satellite and model datasets including the Meteosat AOD from Task 5.3 on level 3 (monthly mean gridded). Applying the algorithm to old and new FCDR versions will allow to assess and quantify the impact of the improved FCDR. Uncertainty characterization on pixel level (level 2) will be developed and assessed through error propagation including the impact of the assumptions which have to be made in the ill-posed retrieval problem; error propagation to level3 gridded datasets will be conducted with the help of WP2.

Ensemble CDR of sea and lake ST

This task is to create the first ensemble CDR for sea surface temperature (SST), and a stability-quantified lake surface water temperature (LSWT) CDR. The approach is to exploit techniques for independent ST retrieval established in SST CCI and GloboLakes, and apply these to the new ensemble AVHRR FCDR. The SST CDR will comprise an equi-probable ensemble temperature record from AVHRRs. The ensemble SST CDR will be a new advance that exposes the full uncertainty in SST time-series, including the spatio-temporal correlation of errors, in a manner that supports new exploitation in climate change assessment, climate model testing and re-analysis.

Software to implement FCDR functional requirement specification

This task will build a set of generic open-source software modules for use in connection with uncertainty in common aspects of the processing chains for FCDRs.

FCDR of AVHRR for AATSR-to-SLSTR gap period

Derive from the AVHRR sensors, data which covers the period May 2012 to the present time in order to provide the most accurate and best characterised broad band, high resolution data to be used in the AATSR-to-SLSTR data gap. Uses best calibration for both instruments and combination with the data from the IASI sensor to create the best proxy FCDR for the AATSR during the gap period

Software to impliment CDR functional requirements specification

This task will build a set of generic open-source software modules for use in connection with uncertainty, stability and validation of common aspects of the processing chains for CDRs. BC will develop software modules, from the functional spec produced by NPL, for use by all teams to implement the mathematical specification from NPL. (These will also be made publically available)

FCDR of HIRS for AATSR-to-SLSTR gap period

Derive from the HIRS sensors, data which covers the period May 2012 to the present time in order to provide the most accurate and best characterised broad band, high resolution data to be used in the AATSR-to-SLSTR data gap. Uses best calibration for both instruments and combination with the data from the IASI sensor to create the best proxy FCDR for the AATSR during the gap period.

Upper tropospheric humidity CDRs from HIRS and microwave sounders

The task is to produce CDRs of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) from the FIDUCEO HIRS and microwave humidity sounder FCDRs. Infrared and microwave data can not be merged due to different altitude sampling/different cloud effects but will be evaluated jointly. This synergistic microwave/infrared view on UTH is novel in FIDUCEO, and is expected to shed new light on the long-term evolution of UTH.

AVHRR/HIRS FCDR harmonisation uncertainty and equi-probable ensemble

Create AVHRR/HIRS from the FCDRs (D4.1) ensemble for uncertainty assessment.

Meteosat VIS FCDR

Using an advanced reverse engineering methods to characterise the variation of the MVIRI SRF in the VIS band including detailed validation, a new calibration of the VIS channel will be derived and a new FCDR will be developed for Meteosat First Genertation data. It will be output in the new FCDR format.

Software for easy CDR format

Software will be made available to read and write out and/or convert to the new format. Software will also be made available in a number of languages (Fortran, C, IDL).

Software for easy FCDR format

Software will be made available to read and write out and/or convert to the new FCDR format. Software will also be made available in a number of languages (Fortran, C, IDL).

Microwave humidity sounder Version 2 FCDR

The deliverable is to create FCDR radiances for all five channels of the entire series of microwave humidity sounders: SSM/T2, AMSU-B, and MHS. A consistent calibration model will be used across the entire satellite series. Known issues to take into account include sensor offsets, non-linear calibration parameters, and scan-biases (for early AMSU-B sensors). UoH: will carry out this task in close collaboration with the Met Office UK (EUMETSAT CM-SAF), which have an on-going microwave FCDR effort that is expected to deliver a first version FCDR around Month 15 of FIDUCEO. During Month 1-15, FIDUCEO will join this on-going effort, focusing on the recalibration from raw instrument counts, metrological aspects and rigorous error analysis, all aspects so far lacking. During Month 15-20, the first version FCDR will be evaluated with the FIDUCEO metrological toolkit, and also will be cross-compared with the HIRS FCDR. During Month 20-32 a Version 2 FCDR will be constructed, based on the evaluation results [30 months].

FIDUCEO data converted to new formats

Use data formatting input and output tools to create consistent FCDR and CDR versions in ‘easy’ and ‘specialist’ formats. Undertake file verification and consistency checks.

Report on traceability chains for FCDRs

NPL will, with support of the FCDR and CDR teams, develop detailed traceability chains for the FCDRs using tools developed in QA4ECV. Gaps in the current traceability will be identified and sources of error and uncertainty will be pinpointed. This will help to identify the different sources of error and uncertainty, including how to assess their correlation properties (i.e. to treat systematic, random and ‘locally systematic’ effects appropriately).

Metrological assessment of FIDUCEO CDRs

The CDRs will be assessed for mutual/relative consistency and stability (trend artefacts and step changes), both within and across sensor-series. An estimate will be made of the uncertainty associated with the CDR with recommendations on how this will be developed further. The results will be documented.

Interim report on WP7 to month 12

Interim on WP7 tasks to month12 (web presence, white paper, liaisons with other bodies, repository, best practices from CLIP-C)

Report on Meteosat Aerosol/Albedo demonstration dataset

Report on the Aerosol/Albedo dataset derived from he Meteosal FCDR data. This is a demonstration datasedt

Description of easy CDR format

The new format will contain all the original telemetry as well as easy to use fields for the genereal user (Lat, Lon, angles, Radiances/BTs, uncertainties). Will be coordinated with appropriate international bodies (e.g. GHRSST). Will be in NetCDF and CF-complient.

Report on AVHRR Aerosol demonstration dataset

Report on the Aerosol dataset derived from the AVHRR data. This is a demonstration dataset.

Validation/improvements of SLSTR radiances leading to paper

Using the L0 data to be generated in T6.3 as well as special matches generated using the FIDUCEO schemes, validate and provide FIDUCEO best practice radiances and uncertainties for the SLSTR IR channels. This will include an assessment of the SLSTR fundamental calibration algorithm as well as using the FIDUCEO uncertainty propagation methods, thus allowing detailed assessment of SLSTR non-linear radiance effects and spectral response functions which have been shown to be important for the AATSR FCDR. Write report.

Progress in FCDR development to Month 12

Report on the progress of FCDR development up to Month 12

Final FCDR User Requirements’ Report

Engage trail-blazer users in early adoption of new FCDRs. Encourage their participation in 2nd FIDUCEO workshop. Solicit presentations and formal feedback on experiences using new FCDRs. Update report on FCDR requirements accordingly

Report on full traceability chains for the CDRs of the other WPs

NPL will, with support of the FCDR and CDR teams, develop detailed traceability chains for the CDRs using tools developed in QA4ECV. Gaps in the current traceability will be identified and sources of error and uncertainty will be pinpointed. This will help to identify the different sources of error and uncertainty, including how to assess their correlation properties (i.e. to treat systematic, random and ‘locally systematic’ effects appropriately).

Report on framework for EO metrology

This task is to prepare a scientific paper and submit for peer review, on ‘A Framework for Earth Observation Metrology’. This will review metrological concepts of uncertainty, stability and traceability as applicable to space-based measurements, with a focus on using these concepts to enhance the credibility of climate datasets obtained from EO. Principles for harmonisation of sensor-series radiances, uncertainty and stability estimation, traceable uncertainties, and propagation of these to derived geophysical datasets will be outlined in a systematic framework.

Metrology Cookbooks and workshop session

Create cookbooks on the best practice uncertainty analysis and propagation, supplemented by an eLearning module. Help with the FIDUCEO workshops. Generate cookbooks and eLearning materials on generic uncertainty analysis with examples relating to the FIDUCEO FCDRs.

Interim FCDR User Requirements’ Report

Report on structured interview for assessing FCDR user requirements with experts

FIDUCEO Sea and Lake Temperature Quick Start and Product User Guide

A quick start guide and product user guide for the Sea and Lake Surface Temperature Upper CDR will be created with inputs from all applicable partners.

Interim report on WP6 progress

Interim report on AATSR-to-SLSTR gap period assessment and comparison of SLSTR to IASI (dependent on launch of SLSTR)

Interim report on WP6 to month 30

Interim report on AATSR-to-SLSTR gap filling methodologies, SLSTR-to-IASI comparisons and SLSTR calibration assessment (dependent on SLSTSR launch)

Final report on WP7 activities

Final report on all WP7 activities including papers, cookbooks, website, workshop summaries,and activities to liaise with other bodies (NCDC/Copernicus Climate Change Service etc.).

Report on progress for FCDRs to Month 30

Report on FCDRs to Month 30 including metrological assessment and toolkits

Quick Start and Product User Guide For all FCDRs

A quick start guide and product user guide for all FCDRs will be created with inputs from all applicable partners.

Description of easy FCDR format

The new format will contain all the original telemetry as well as easy to use fields for the genereal user (Lat, Lon, angles, Radiances/BTs, uncertainties). Definition needs to take into account data problems in the original data such as data gaps, dropouts etc. Will be coordinated with appropriate international bodies (e.g. CEOS WGISS). It will be in NetCDF-4.0 and CF-complient

FIDUCEO upper tropospheric humidity CDR Quick Start Guide and Product User Guide

A quick start guide and product user guide for the Upper Tropospheric Humidity CDR will be created with inputs from all applicable partners.

Interim report on User Requirements

Interim report on progress made in User Requirement loop to be given at Month 39

Scientific basis of FIDUCEO FCDRs

Based on Product User Guide together with scientific journals on the production and validation of the FCDRs, a report on the scientific basis for the FCDRs will be prepared

Metrological Assessment of Consistency, Stability and Uncertainty of FIDUCEO FCDRs

The task is to undertake assessment of the FCDRs using the methodologies embodied in the EO-metrological toolkit developed in WP2. Thus, the FCDRs will be assessed for mutual/relative consistency and stability (trend artefacts and step changes), both within and across sensor-series. The FCDR uncertainty information will be validated. The results will be documented.

Fiduceo framework for FCDR development v1

The task is to prepare a joint report fully defining and documenting the common best-practice approach to FCDR generation. This will be in two versions: at the start of WP2 to document the expected application of this framework, and, at the end of WP2, a revision in the light of experience during the project.

Interim on WP7 to month 30

Interim report on progress on WP7 up to month 30. This will include website data, papers, preparations for first workshop and any developments in liaising with other bodies.

Fiduceo framework for FCDR development v2

The task is the second version of the joint report fully defining and documenting the common best-practice approach to FCDR generation. This revision, at the end of WP2, will reflect the experience gained during the project.

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Publications

Radiance Uncertainty Characterisation to Facilitate Climate Data Record Creation

Author(s): Christopher Merchant, Gerrit Holl, Jonathan Mittaz, Emma Woolliams
Published in: Remote Sensing, Issue 11/5, 2019, Page(s) 474, ISSN 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs11050474

Error Correlations in High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Radiances

Author(s): Gerrit Holl, Jonathan P. D. Mittaz, Christopher J. Merchant
Published in: Remote Sensing, Issue 11/11, 2019, Page(s) 1337, ISSN 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs11111337

Applying principles of metrology to historical Earth observations from satellites

Author(s): Jonathan Mittaz, Christopher J Merchant, Emma R Woolliams
Published in: Metrologia, Issue 56/3, 2019, Page(s) 032002, ISSN 0026-1394
DOI: 10.1088/1681-7575/ab1705

Climate Data Records from Meteosat First Generation Part III: Recalibration and Uncertainty Tracing of the Visible Channel on Meteosat-2–7 Using Reconstructed, Spectrally Changing Response Functions

Author(s): Frank Rüthrich, Viju O. John, Rob A. Roebeling, Ralf Quast, Yves Govaerts, Emma R. Woolliams, Jörg Schulz
Published in: Remote Sensing, Issue 11/10, 2019, Page(s) 1165, ISSN 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs11101165

Climate Data Records from Meteosat First Generation Part II: Retrieval of the In-Flight Visible Spectral Response

Author(s): Ralf Quast, Ralf Giering, Yves Govaerts, Frank Rüthrich, Rob Roebeling
Published in: Remote Sensing, Issue 11/5, 2019, Page(s) 480, ISSN 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs11050480

A Novel Framework to Harmonise Satellite Data Series for Climate Applications

Author(s): Ralf Giering, Ralf Quast, Jonathan P. D. Mittaz, Samuel E. Hunt, Peter M. Harris, Emma R. Woolliams, Christopher J. Merchant
Published in: Remote Sensing, Issue 11/9, 2019, Page(s) 1002, ISSN 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs11091002

Climate Data Records from Meteosat First Generation Part I: Simulation of Accurate Top-of-Atmosphere Spectral Radiance over Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites for the Retrieval of the In-Flight Visible Spectral Response

Author(s): Yves Govaerts, Frank Rüthrich, Viju John, Ralf Quast
Published in: Remote Sensing, Issue 10/12, 2018, Page(s) 1959, ISSN 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs10121959

Applying Metrological Techniques to Satellite Fundamental Climate Data Records

Author(s): Emma R Woolliams, Jonathan PD Mittaz, Christopher J Merchant, Samuel E Hunt, Peter M Harris
Published in: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Issue 972, 2018, Page(s) 012003, ISSN 1742-6588
DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/972/1/012003

Inter-channel uniformity of a microwave sounder in space

Author(s): Martin Burgdorf, Imke Hans, Marc Prange, Theresa Lang, Stefan A. Buehler
Published in: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Issue 11/7, 2018, Page(s) 4005-4014, ISSN 1867-8548
DOI: 10.5194/amt-11-4005-2018

The Moon as a photometric calibration standard for microwave sensors

Author(s): Martin Burgdorf, Stefan A. Buehler, Theresa Lang, Simon Michel, Imke Hans
Published in: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Issue 9/8, 2016, Page(s) 3467-3475, ISSN 1867-8548
DOI: 10.5194/amt-9-3467-2016

Noise performance of microwave humidity sounders over their life time

Author(s): Imke Hans, Martin Burgdorf, Viju O. John, Jonathan Mittaz, Stefan A. Buehler
Published in: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 2017, Page(s) 1-30, ISSN 1867-8610
DOI: 10.5194/amt-2017-277