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M4ShaleGas: Measuring, monitoring, mitigating managing the environmental impact of shale gas

Deliverables

Final report seismic monitoring for shale gas operations

Final report with integrated results from all research activities. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on seismic monitoring. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on seismic monitoring provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to “image” hydraulic fracturing and subsurface perturbations during shale gas operations.

Concentration baselines and raw shale gas compositions

Report on methodologies for establishing concentration baselines and raw gas compositions in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of methodologies and optimum approaches for establishing air quality baselines in Europe. Scope: The review will provide guidelines to establish air quality baselines in Europe, and thereby helps to quantify atmospheric emissions resulting from shale gas operations in Europe.

Recommendations on the occurrence of seismicity during shale gas reservoir stimulations

Publication with scientific recommendations on the potential occurrence of induced seismicity during shale gas reservoir stimulations and its relation to hydraulic parameters and geometrical expansion of hydro-fractures. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations on “imaging” hydraulic fracturing and subsurface perturbations during shale gas operations using induced seismicity. Scope: Integration of reviews (mainly U.S.A. and Canada) and research into scientific recommendations on seismic monitoring provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aid discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Lessons learned from related energy technologies

Final report on the lessons learned from related energy technologies and on the implications from these lessons for future approaches to shale gas, both for public engagement activities as well as for public perception research. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on learnings from public perceptions of related technologies. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on public perceptions of technologies related to shale gas operations provides the scientific basis for the recommendations on public engagement, participation and dissemination of information in European shale gas projects.

Sustainable alternatives for wastewater management

Report on knowledge gaps related to wastewater management and analysis of emerging techniques and sustainable alternatives with the applicability in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of identified knowledge gaps regarding sustainable wastewater management for shale gas operations in Europe. Scope: The inventory of knowledge gaps is used as a basis for outlining optimum wastewater management approaches in Europe that can be used to minimize the impact of shale gas operations on water resources.

Recommendations for measurement procedures to assess the harmfulness of wastes from shale gas exploitation

Publication with recommendations for research and measurement procedures to assess the potential harmfulness and proper management of wastes from shale gas exploitation. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for assessment of the potential harmfulness and proper management of shale gas wastes from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with analysis of available data to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations on assessment of shale gas wastes provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Handling fracking fluids and backflows for shale gas

Report with knowledge gaps that exist specifically for handling fracking fluids and backflows at the drill site and in storage pools, ratings of organic content and inorganic substances, and content of radioactive components. Aim: Public dissemination of identified knowledge gaps regarding risk assessment studies for water quality around drill sites. Scope: The inventory of knowledge gaps is used as a basis for different risk assessment studies focusing on the impact of shale gas operations on water quality around drill sites.

Recommendations best practices for handling shale gas fracking fluids and backflows to minimize waste risk

Publication with scientific recommendations for handling fracking fluids and backflows to minimize waste risk. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for handling fracking fluids and backflows to minimize waste risk from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with risk assessment and analysis of available data to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations on handling fracking fluids and backflows to minimize waste risk provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Monitoring and mitigating emissions to air

Final report synthesising all activities in WP14. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on emissions to atmosphere during shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on emissions to atmosphere provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise impacts and mitigate risks and footprint of shale gas emissions in Europe.

Improving well integrity in European shale gas wells

"Report on ""Improving well integrity in European shale gas wells"". Aim: Public dissemination of research on well integrity of shale gas wells, specifically for Europe. Scope: In depth knowledge on the integrity of wells during shale gas operations is key to determining optimum boundary conditions for safe operations in Europe."

Minutes of the 2nd General Assembly

Project meetings: minutes of the 2nd General Assembly

Recommendations for minimizing impact of well site infrastructure and transport for shale gas operations Europe

Publication with scientific recommendations for minimizing impact of well site infrastructure and transport associated with shale gas operations in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for minimizing impact of well site infrastructure and transport from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with analysis of available data to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations for minimizing impact of well site infrastructure and transport provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Review of impact of hydraulic fracturing

Report with state of the art review of hydraulic fracturing with clearly identified gaps in knowledge and with recommendations for experimental and numerical modelling work. Aim: Inventory with best practices of shale gas hydraulic fracturing from US & Canada. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps on shale gas hydraulic fracturing when applied to Europe, thereby helping to tailor and optimize experimental and modelling work.

Review of induced seismicity for global shale gas operations

Report with state of the art review of induced seismicity related to global shale gas operations with clearly identified gaps in knowledge. Aim: Review on impacts and risks of shale gas induced seismicity and inventory with best practice operations from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to the occurrence, impacts and risks of shale gas induced seismicity, specifically for Europe.

Integrated review of public perceptions of shale gas impacts

Report with integrated review of public perceptions on environmental impacts of shale gas exploitation based on WP17-WP19 reviews. Aim: Public dissemination of integrated review of public perceptions on environmental impacts. Scope: The review will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to public perceptions on environmental impacts of shale gas exploitation in general, and specifically for Europe.

Mitigating impacts of infrastructure and transport on habitat

Report on impacts on habitat and potential mitigation strategies. Aim: Public dissemination of research on habitat impacts and mitigation strategies to minimize habitat impacts from well site infrastructure and transport. Scope: The research assesses habitat impacts from well site infrastructure and transport, thereby helping to establish boundary conditions to minimize impacts on habitats in Europe.

Impact of well site infrastructure and transport

Final report with integrated results from all research activities, including Rank-ordering of Scenario Options. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on well site infrastructure and transport for shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on well site infrastructure and transport provides the scientific basis for the recommendations that contribute to minimise impacts and mitigate risks and footprint of well site infrastructure and transport for shale gas operations in Europe.

Review of monitoring well leakage in U.S.A. and Canada

Report with review of monitoring and existing best practices for monitoring well leakage in U.S.A. and Canada. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations on monitoring well leakage during shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews (mainly U.S.A. and Canada) and research into scientific recommendations on seismic monitoring provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities that aid discussions on, and technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Recommendations for comparing carbon footprint energy

Publication with scientific recommendations and knowledge gaps for objectively comparing carbon footprint from shale gas and various other energy sources. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for comparing carbon footprint from shale gas and various other energy sources from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. Canada), extended with analysis of available data and modelling to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations for comparing carbon footprint from shale gas and various other energy sources provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Review of European soil and water monitoring systems for shale gas and best practices from U.S.A. and Canada

Report with review of European soil and water monitoring systems and applicability of best practices from U.S.A. and Canada. Aim: Public dissemination of review of European soil and water monitoring systems and inventory with best practices of soil and water monitoring during shale gas operations from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will outline best practices and latest developments in soil and water monitoring during shale gas operations, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps and potential developments for operations in Europe.

Review of the composition operational fluids and flowback water

Report with state of the art review of geochemical composition of operational fluids and flowback water in U.S.A., Canada and Europe with clearly identified gaps in knowledge. Aim: Public dissemination of review of geochemical composition of operational fluids and flowback water in U.S.A., Canada and Europe. Scope: The inventory will outline geochemical composition of operational fluids relevant to shale gas operations and best practices in dealing with expected flow back water compositions, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps and potential developments for operations in Europe.

Spills and leaks from normal shale gas well pad operations

Report on probability of spills/leaks from normal well pad operation based on experience of comparator activities with assessment of mitigation strategies. Aim: Public dissemination of research on the probability of spills/leaks from normal well pad operations and mitigation measures. Scope: The research uses knowledge from comparator activities to assess probability of spills/leaks from well pad operations, thereby helping to establish boundary conditions to minimize impacts from well pad operations in Europe.

Inventory of quantified surface risks and impact of shale gas operations

Report with scientific recommendations for minimizing the environmental footprint of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe inventory of quantified surface risks and impact of shale gas operations. Aim: Public dissemination of the inventory of quantified risks and impacts of shale gas exploration and exploitation on atmospheric emissions and CO2 footprint. Scope: The inventory allows comparison of quantified risks and impacts on atmospheric emissions and CO2 footprint from different activities for shale gas exploration and exploitation, specifically for Europe, and aids in assessing their relative importance.

Review public perceptions and attitudes shale gas in U.S.A.

Report with review of current evidence about public perceptions and attitudes toward shale gas in North America. Aim: Public dissemination of review of public perceptions and attitudes towards shale gas in North America. Scope: The inventory will use North American experience to establish approaches with public perceptions and attitudes toward shale gas for Europe.

Integrated progress reports of the M4ShaleGas project

Integrated progress reports of the M4ShaleGas project (months 6, 12, 18 and 24). Aim: Public dissemination of intermediate results from M4ShaleGas research on shale gas operations and perceptions. Scope: Dissemination of intermediate results stimulates discussions with different stakeholders in shale gas activities and provide additional information on the most relevant focus of research during the M4ShaleGas project.

Inventory of quantified risks and impact of shale gas exploration and exploitation

Report with inventory of quantified risks and impact of shale gas exploration and exploitation. Aim: Public dissemination of the complete inventory of quantified risks and impacts of shale gas exploration and exploitation based from M4ShaleGas research, including all impact areas investigated in subprograms 1-4. Scope: The inventory allows comparison of quantified risks and impacts resulting from different activities for shale gas exploration and exploitation, specifically for Europe, and aids in assessing their relative importance in terms of actual and perceived risks.

Recommendations for the sustainable management of water in shale gas operations in Europe

Scientific recommendations for the sustainable management of water in shale gas operations in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for sustainable approaches to water management to minimize impacts from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with analysis of available data to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations on handling fracking fluids and backflows to minimize waste risk provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Seismic sensors and data evaluation for leakage detection

Peer reviewed paper on concepts applicable to optimum seismic sensor deployments and data evaluation procedures for leakage detection along monitoring wells during and after shale gas reservoir exploitation. Aim: External peer review and public dissemination of research concepts applicable to optimum seismic sensor deployments and data evaluation procedures for leakage detection along monitoring wells during and after shale gas reservoir exploitation. Scope: resolving knowledge gaps on optimum design for optimized detection of gas and fluid leakage along monitoring wells using seismic sensors.

Shale drilling, completion and production

Final report with integrated results from all research activities. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on shale gas drilling, completion and production operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on shale gas drilling, completion and production operations provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise and mitigate impacts of these operations in Europe.

List of stakeholders in monitoring groundwater and soils

Documentation (including list) of stakeholders in monitoring surface, groundwater and soils. Aim: Public dissemination of inventory of stakeholders dealing with monitoring surface, groundwater and soils. Scope: The inventory will outline different stakeholders in monitoring surface, groundwater and soils in Europe that forms the basis for stakeholder surveys on optimum approaches to monitoring the impact of shale gas operations.

Risks and impacts of shale gas surface operations in Europe

Report with of possible risks and impacts of shale gas surface operations on quality of water, soil, waste and broadly defined infrastructure in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of the inventory of quantified risks and impacts of shale gas surface operations on quality of water, soil, waste and broadly defined infrastructure in Europe. Scope: The inventory allows comparison of quantified risks and impacts from different surface operations for shale gas exploration and exploitation, specifically for Europe, and aids in assessing their relative importance.

Impacts of fracking fluids on groundwater quantity and quality

Final report with integrated results from all research activities in WP8. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on (risk assessment of) handling fracking fluids and backflows to minimize waste risk. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on handling fracking fluids and backflows provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to perform risk assessment and to minimise impacts and mitigate risks and footprint of handling fracking fluids and backflows in Europe.

Subsurface risks and impact of shale gas operations

Report with inventory of quantified subsurface risks and impact of shale gas operations. Aim: Public dissemination of the inventory of quantified subsurface risks and impacts of shale gas operations. Scope: The inventory allows comparison of quantified risks and impacts from different subsurface activities for shale gas exploration and exploitation, specifically for Europe, and aids in assessing their relative importance.

Classification of shale gas sites in terms of seismic risks

Peer reviewed paper on classification of shale gas sites in terms of seismic risks and potential mitigation measures. Aim: Public dissemination and external peer review of research on the classification of shale gas sites in terms of seismic risks. Scope: Classification of shale gas sites in terms of seismic risks provides criteria for selection of European sites and mitigation measures that reduce seismic risks for shale gas operations.

Stakeholder views on monitoring groundwater and soils

Publication with results of stakeholders survey, confirmed areas of interest, types of data and availability, views on monitoring surface, groundwater and soils. Aim: Public dissemination of survey of stakeholders approaches to monitoring surface, groundwater and soils. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate existing stakeholder approaches and potential knowledge gaps on monitoring surface, groundwater and soils in Europe, thereby helping to properly outline optimum approaches to monitoring the environmental impact of shale gas operations.

Mobility of compounds and flowback water composition

Report on chemical process simulation to characterize mobility of organic and inorganic compounds and prediction of flow back water composition for selected shale systems. Aim: Public dissemination of simulation results of flow back water compositions and compound mobility for European gas shales. Scope: The research contributes to optimum flow back water management by providing bounds on potential flow back water compositions for gas shales in Europe, thereby helping to minimize the impact of shale gas operations on water resources and soils.

Prerequisites for a social license to operate shale gas

Report on future research needs for better understanding: “demands on and expectations for a business enterprise that emerge from neighborhoods, environmental groups, community members, and other demands of the surrounding civil society;” thus contributing to the broader debate about the prerequisites for a “social license to operate” for the (shale) gas industry. Aim: Public dissemination of an inventory of research needs on public perceptions and attitudes. Scope: The inventory serves as a basis for focussing future research on public perceptions, and thereby contributes to establish the prerequisites for a “social license to operate” for the (shale) gas industry.

Review of impact of well site infrastructure and transport

Report with review of impact of well site infrastructure and transport. Aim: Public dissemination of review of impact of well site infrastructure and transport from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The review will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps on the impact of well site infrastructure and transport, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps for shale gas operations in Europe.

Seismic monitoring of well leakage

Final report with integrated results from all research activities

Shale gas hydraulic fracturing

Final report synthesising all activities in work package 1. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on hydraulic fracturing. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on hydraulic fracturing provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise and mitigate impacts and risks of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas in Europe.

Review of seismic monitoring networks for shale gas

Report with review of seismic monitoring network design, waveform processing procedures, and existing best practices in use in U.S.A. and Canada or in other application domains. Aim: Inventory with best practices of seismic monitoring during shale gas operations from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will outline best practices and latest developments in seismic monitoring during shale gas operations from U.S.A and Canada, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps and potential developments for operations in Europe.

Recommendations of geochemical strategy for monitoring shale play exploitation

Recommendations of geochemical strategy for monitoring shale play exploitation (from the drilling to the analyses and identification of potential leakage pathways) and focus on natural geochemical tracers - the dissolved noble gases - : their behaviour, their detection sensitivity, their geochemical properties in this context. Aim: External peer review and public dissemination of “best practice and recommendations” for a geochemical strategy for monitoring, which can be limited in space but with the advantage that species in all phases (gas, dissolved and with mass balance calculations also precipitated) can be followed. Scope: Put in evidence that noble gases which have specific geochemical properties are very interesting to follow for the best geochemical monitoring strategy. This deliverable can benefit of the work that has been performed in the CO2 geological storage context, at IFPEN.

Composition and management of shale gas waste

Final report with integrated results from all research activities in WP10. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on the composition and management of different kinds of wastes resulting from shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on the composition and management of different kind of wastes provides the scientific basis for the recommendations for optimum management of different kinds of waste that contributes to minimising impacts and mitigation of risks and footprint for shale gas operations in Europe.

Review of data on groundwater and surface water pollution

Report with review of the data and experience from Europe, U.S.A. and Canada with respect to identified groundwater contamination and pollution of surface waters. Aim: Public dissemination of review of groundwater contamination and pollution of surface waters related to (shale) gas operations from Europe, U.S.A. Canada. Scope: The inventory will outline best practices and latest developments in assessment and managing groundwater and surface water contamination, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps and potential developments for operations in Europe.

Bedding and fracture influence on hydraulic fractures

Peer reviewed paper on influence of bedding and existing fracture networks on propagation and distribution of hydraulic fractures. Aim: Public dissemination and external peer review of experimental results on fracture growth. Scope: Fracture growth experiments on shales relevant to Europe are important to provide better constraints on the spatial extent of hydraulic fractures.

Control for estimating and monitoring fugitive emissions

Report with all data and conclusions on the best practice for the control of fugitive emissions and for a cost-effective strategic program of monitoring and emission estimation. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on atmospheric emissions and CO2 footprint of shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on emissions and CO2 footprint from WP14 and WP15 provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise impacts on atmosphere and mitigate CO2 footprint of shale gas operations in Europe.

Shale gas public perceptions, issues, policies U.S.A. and EU

Report on understanding of public perceptions of shale gas and fracking in North America, potential methodological and conceptual issues in Europe, and interim policy lessons. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on public perceptions of shale gas in North America. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on public perceptions in North America provides the scientific basis for the recommendations on future communication strategies and dialogue on shale gas in Europe based on the North American experience.

Review of lessons learned on public perceptions

Report with review of lessons learned on public perceptions and engagement from other large-scale technologies. Aim: Public dissemination of review of public perceptions and engagement from other large-scale technologies. Scope: The review will use lesson learned from other large-scale technologies to establish approaches with shale gas public perceptions and engagement for Europe.

Minutes of the 1st General Assembly

Project meetings: minutes of the 1st General Assembly

Integrated review of best practices of subsurface operations in U.S.A. and Canada

Report with integrated review of data and existing best practices of subsurface operations in U.S.A. and Canada. Aim: Public dissemination of integrated review of impacts and risks related to subsurface shale gas operations with best practice operations from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to impacts and risks of subsurface shale gas operations, specifically when applied to Europe.

Controls on fracture initiation in shale material

Peer reviewed paper on controls on fracture initiation in shale material. Aim: Public dissemination and external peer review of results of fracture initiation and propagation experiments. Scope: Fracture initiation and propagation experiments on shales relevant to Europe are important to provide better constraints on the spatial extent of hydraulic fractures.

Review on carbon footprint of shale gas operations

Model tool to calculate carbon footprint from shale gas and other fossil fuels. Aim: Public dissemination of research on the carbon footprint of shale gas exploitation. Scope: The research will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to the carbon footprint of shale gas exploitation, and thereby steers research to better estimate this footprint.

Geochemical species to monitor in a shale exploitation context

Review of geochemical species to monitor in a shale exploitation context. Aim: External Report on geochemical species that must be followed during shale exploitation. Scope: Put in evidence that a lot of geochemical species could be followed during shale exploitation but only a part of them have good interest to be followed, based on their specific geochemical properties which will be explained in details.

Best practices and recommendations for minimising the environmental footprint of subsurface shale gas operations

Report with inventory of key knowledge gaps and best practices for subsurface operations, and integrated scientific recommendations for minimising the environmental footprint. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on subsurface operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on different subsurface operations from WP1 to WP1 provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise impacts and mitigate risks and footprint of subsurface shale gas operations in Europe.

Review of regulatory frameworks legal acts and existing best practices from Europe and worldwide for drilling materials and generated wastes relevant to shale gas operations

Public dissemination of report with review of regulatory frameworks legal acts and existing best practices from Europe and worldwide for drilling materials and generated wastes relevant to shale gas operations. Aim: Review of regulatory frameworks legal acts and existing best practices for managing drilling materials and generated wastes from shale gas operations in Europe, U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will outline best practices and latest developments in managing drilling materials and generated wastes from shale gas operations, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps and potential developments for operations in Europe.

Minutes of the kick-off meeting

Project meetings: minutes of the kick-off meeting

Minutes of the close-out meeting

Project meetings: minutes of the close-out meeting

Scientific recommendations on monitoring well leakage

Publication with scientific recommendations on monitoring of well leakage

Experimental study of fault reactivation controls in shales

Report on experimental study of controls on fault reactivation. Aim: Public dissemination of experimental results on fault reactivation. Scope: Better controls on fault reactivation in European shales are important to better constrain critical conditions for induced seismicity.

Recommendations for minimising the impact and risks of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas in Europe

Peer reviewed paper on predictions of fracture disturbed zone by hydraulic fracturing models. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for hydraulic fracturing resulting from review of best practices, experiments and modelling. Scope: Integration of reviews (mainly U.S.A. and Canada) and research into scientific recommendations for hydraulic fracturing provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Recommendations for understanding public perceptions and attitudes of environmental impact of shale gas

Report with aimed at a policy and stakeholder audience that pulls together the best practice recommendations of each of the work packages in relation to understanding public perceptions and managing the environmental impact of shale gas. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on public perceptions of the environmental impact of shale gas. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on public perceptions, engagement, participation and dissemination from WP4.1 to WP4.3 provides the scientific basis for the recommendations on communication strategies and prerequisites for a “social license to operate” in Europe.

Project Master Plan

The Project Master Plan describes the governance structure and all management and dissemination procedures of the M4ShaleGas project. It also contains an implementation plan for the work packages and tasks.

Review of emissions to air from shale gas operations

Report with state of the art review of emissions to air from shale gas exploration and exploitation including existing best practices from U.S.A. and Canada with clearly identified gaps in knowledge. Aim: Public dissemination of review of emissions to air resulting from shale gas operations with best practice operations from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The review will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to impacts and risks of shale gas operations to air emissions in Europe.

Recommendations for public engagement, participation and dissemination of information in shale gas projects

Publication with scientific recommendations for public engagement, participation and dissemination of information in shale gas projects. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for public engagement, participation and dissemination of information in shale gas projects from reviews of related technologies, extended with interpretation of available data to close identified knowledge gaps for shale gas. Scope: Scientific recommendations for public engagement, participation and dissemination of information provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper criteria for social licenses to operate.

Model predictions of fracture disturbed zone

Peer reviewed paper on predictions of fracture disturbed zone by hydraulic fracturing models. Aim: Public dissemination and external peer review of results on modelling the fracture disturbed zone. Scope: Experimentally validated models of the fracture disturbed zone for European shales provide better constraints on subsurface perturbation due to hydraulic fracturing.

Recommendations about expected flowback water compositions and mobility for individual shale systems

Publication with best practice guide/recommendations about expected flow back water compositions and mobility for individual shale systems. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for dealing with expected flow back water compositions and mobility for individual shale systems from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with analysis of available data and model simulations to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations for dealing with expected flow back water compositions provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Website M4ShaleGas

M4ShaleGas website (3-monthly updates). Aim: Flexible and dynamic dissemination platform for all results from M4ShaleGas research. Scope: The M4ShaleGas website will serve as an dynamic information platform that provides a knowledge base on the environmental impact of shale gas exploitation in Europe and stimulates discussions between different stakeholders in shale gas activities.

Review of shale gas drilling, completion and production

Report with review of shale gas drilling, completion and production operations. Aim: Inventory with best practices of shale gas shale gas drilling, completion and production operations from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps on shale gas shale gas drilling, completion and production operations, and will specify issues for application of best practices in Europe.

Recommendations communication strategies and dialogue on shale gas based on the North American experience

Publication with scientific recommendations on best-practice recommendations for future communication strategies and dialogue on shale gas based on the North American experience. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for future communication strategies and dialogue on shale gas from review of best practices in North America, extended with interpretation of available data to close identified knowledge gaps for Europe. Scope: Scientific recommendations for future communication strategies and dialogue on shale gas provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper criteria for social licenses to operate.

Methods and materials for shale gas operations

Report on emerging methods and materials for shale gas operations. Aim: Public dissemination of research on emerging methods and materials for shale gas drilling, completion and production operations, specifically for Europe. Scope: Innovative methods and materials can reduce the impact and risks of shale gas drilling, completion and production operations.

Physicochemical parameters to assess harmfulness of flow back water and wastes relevant to shale gas operations

Report on physicochemical parameters to assess harmfulness of flow back water and wastes relevant to shale gas operations. Aim: Public dissemination of research on physicochemical parameters relevant to determining harmfulness of flow back waste types from shale gas operations in Europe. Scope: The research contributes to establishing optimum flow back waste management approaches in Europe that can be used to minimize the impact of shale gas operations on water resources and soils.

Compounds in flowback water

Final report with integrated results from all research activities in WP11. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on the composition and mobility of compounds in flowback water from shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on the composition and mobility of compounds in flowback water provides the scientific basis for the recommendations that contribute to minimise impacts and mitigate risks and footprint of flow back water use in shale gas operations in Europe.

Flow back water analysis of shales from 3 European locations

Report providing analytical results from laboratory autoclave systems under in-situ conditions using selected gas shales from 3 different European locations and flow back water analysis. Aim: Public dissemination of experimental analysis of flow back water compositions for European gas shales. Scope: The research contributes to optimum flow back water management by providing bounds on potential flow back water compositions for gas shales in Europe, thereby helping to minimize the impact of shale gas operations on water resources and soils.

Shale gas seismic monitoring and data processing

Report with concepts applicable to optimum seismic reservoir monitoring network design and data evaluation procedures for high-resolution near real-time microseismic monitoring of shale gas exploitation. Aim: Public dissemination of research on optimum seismic monitoring and data evaluation procedures during shale gas exploitation. Scope: Detailed knowledge and optimum procedure for seismic monitoring are the most important means of “imaging” subsurface perturbations due to shale gas operations.

Harmfulness and hazard of drilling materials and wastes

Report on harmfulness and hazard of drilling materials and wastes relevant to shale gas operations. Aim: Public dissemination of research on harmfulness of drilling materials and wastes from shale gas operations in Europe. Scope: The research contributes to establishing optimum drilling waste management approaches in Europe that can be used to minimize the impact of shale gas operations on water resources and soils.

Sampling strategy and results for a conventional gas site

Peer reviewed paper on sampling strategy for monitoring atmospheric composition. Aim: Public dissemination and external review of research on sampling strategies for monitoring atmospheric compositions in Europe. Scope: The research on sampling strategy for monitoring atmospheric composition will provide guidelines to monitor air quality, and thereby helps to quantify the effect of atmospheric emissions resulting from shale gas operations in Europe.

Recommendations for minimising seismic risks and mitigation measures for induced seismicity in shale gas

Publication with scientific recommendations for minimizing seismic risks and optimum mitigation measures for induced seismicity associated with shale gas operations in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations on minimizing seismic risks from review of best practices, experiments and modelling. Scope: Integration of reviews (mainly U.S.A. and Canada) and research into scientific recommendations for minimizing seismic risks provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Integrated review of best practices of surface operations

Report with integrated review of data and existing best practices of surface operations from U.S.A. and Canada and Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of integrated review of impacts and risks of shale gas operations on surface with best practices from U.S.A. and Canada and application to Europe. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to surface impacts and risks of shale gas operations, specifically when applied to Europe.

Best practices and recommendations for minimising the environmental footprint of surface shale gas operations

Report with inventory of key knowledge gaps and best practices for surface operations, and integrated scientific recommendations for minimising the environmental footprint. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on surface operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on different surface operations from WP7 to WP12 provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise impacts and mitigate risks and footprint of surface shale gas operations in Europe.

Improving water management and treatment for shale gas operations

Report on “Improving water management and treatment in European shale gas activities”. Aim: Public dissemination of research on improving water management and treatment approached for application to shale gas operations in Europe. Scope: The research contributes to establishing optimum water management approaches in Europe that can be used to minimize the impact of shale gas operations on water resources.

Sustainable wastewater management in shale gas operations

Final report with integrated results from all research activities in WP9. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on sustainable approaches to water management. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on optimum water management provides the scientific basis for the recommendations for sustainable approaches to water management that contributes to minimising impacts and mitigation of risks and footprint for shale gas operations in Europe.

Recommendations for minimizing risks and impacts of shale gas drilling, completion and production in Europe

Publication with scientific recommendations for minimizing risks and impacts of shale gas drilling, completion and production operations in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations on minimizing risks and impacts of shale gas drilling, completion and production operations in Europe from review of best practices, and research on improved well integrity and emerging methods and materials. Scope: Integration of reviews (mainly U.S.A. and Canada) and research into scientific recommendations for minimizing risks and impacts of shale gas drilling, completion and production operations in Europe provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aid discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

CO2 footprint and global climate forcing

Final report synthesising all work in WP15. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on CO2 footprint and impact on global climate forcing of shale gas operations. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on CO2 footprint and global climate forcing provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise CO2 footprint of shale gas emissions in Europe.

Shale gas seismic monitoring and data evaluation

Peer reviewed paper on optimum microseismic reservoir monitoring network design and data evaluation procedures for high-resolution near real-time microseismic monitoring of reservoir stimulation. Aim: External peer review and public dissemination of research on optimum seismic monitoring and data evaluation procedures during shale gas exploitation. Scope: Detailed knowledge and optimum procedure for seismic monitoring are the most important means of “imaging” subsurface perturbations due to shale gas operations.

Environmental monitoring for shale gas

Report on environmental monitoring associated with shale gas development in Europe, summarizing all results from WP7 and taking into account the contribution of M4ShaleGas partners. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on environmental monitoring of surface, groundwater, and soils. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on environmental monitoring of surface, groundwater, and soils provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to perform optimum environmental monitoring for analysis of impacts and leading to mitigation of risks and footprint of shale gas operations in Europe.

Recommendations for minimising the impact and risks of shale gas in Europe on air quality

Publication with scientific recommendations and knowledge gaps for minimising the impact and risks of shale gas in Europe on air quality. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for minimising the impact and risks of shale gas in Europe on air quality from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with data collection and analysis of methodologies and available data to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations for minimising the impact and risks of shale gas in Europe on air quality provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Integrated review of emissions to air and CO2 footprint

Report with integrated review of emissions to air and CO2 footprint from shale gas exploration and exploitation including existing best practices from U.S.A. and Canada. Aim: Public dissemination of integrated review of emissions to air and CO2 footprint from shale gas operations with best practices from U.S.A. and Canada and application to Europe. Scope: The inventory will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to air emissions and CO2 footprint from shale gas shale gas operations in Europe.

Inventory of key knowledge gaps, best practices, and integrated scientific recommendations for minimising the environmental footprint of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe

Final report with inventory of key knowledge gaps, best practices, and integrated scientific recommendations for minimising the environmental footprint of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on shale gas operations and perceptions. Scope: Integration of reviews and research from M4ShaleGas research activities provides the scientific basis for the recommendations on best practices for shale gas exploitation in Europe with focus on minimum environmental impact and mitigation of risks and footprint.

Integrated review of data and best practices in U.S.A. and Canada

Report with integrated review of data and existing best practices from U.S.A. and Canada. Aim: Public dissemination of integrated review of all impacts, risks and footprints as well as best practice approaches from U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The review will demonstrate the relative importance of potential knowledge gaps related to the environmental impacts of shale gas exploitation in general, and specifically for Europe.

Final report perceptions, attitudes, communications in EU

Report on the public perceptions of shale gas in various EU Member States, public attitudes and communication strategies developed around shale gas investments. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on public perceptions of shale gas in EU Member States. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on public perceptions provides a scientific knowledge base on public perceptions on shale gas and prerequisites for a “social license to operate” in Europe.

Induced seismicity in shale gas

Final report with integrated results from all research activities. Aim: Public dissemination of all results from M4ShaleGas research on induced seismicity. Scope: Integration of reviews and research on induced seismicity provides the scientific basis for the recommendations to minimise and mitigate impacts and risks of induced seismicity for shale gas in Europe.

Key controlling factors for shale gas induced seismicity

Peer reviewed paper on key controlling factors, site specific conditions, and mechanisms leading to induced seismicity for shale gas operations. Aim: Public dissemination and external peer review of research on factors, conditions and mechanisms leading to induced seismicity for shale gas operations. Scope: In depth understanding of shale gas induced seismicity is important to improve predictions and mitigation measures, relevant to Europe.

Review of public perceptions and attitudes in relation to shale gas in Europe

Report with review of current evidence about public perceptions and attitudes toward shale gas in Europe. Aim: Public dissemination of review of public perceptions and attitudes toward shale gas in Europe. Scope: The review will demonstrate potential knowledge gaps related to public perceptions and attitudes toward shale gas in Europe.

Seepage shale gas waste in different geological conditions

Report on the modelling of seepage of waste in different geological conditions. Aim: Public dissemination of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrological modelling study on waste seepage during shale gas operations. Scope: The modelling provides critical boundary conditions for seepage of waste during shale gas operations, and thereby helps establishing mitigation measures to prevent waste seepage.

Review of water management in shale gas activities

Report with the review of the data and experience from U.S.A., Canada and Europe with respect to water management in shale gas activities. Aim: Public dissemination of review of approaches to water management related to shale gas operations in Europe, U.S.A. and Canada. Scope: The inventory will outline best practices and latest developments in water management, thereby helping to identify potential knowledge gaps and potential developments for operations in Europe.

Recommendation best practices for minimizing surface impact using environmental monitoring

Report with contributions of WP7 to integrated SP2 results and recommendation of best practices for minimizing surface impact. Aim: Public dissemination of scientific recommendations for optimum environmental monitoring of surface, groundwater, and soils from review of best practices (mainly U.S.A. and Canada), extended with analysis of available data to close identified knowledge gaps. Scope: Scientific recommendations on optimum environmental monitoring of surface, groundwater, and soils provides guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper technical criteria for licenses to operate.

Minimizing pollution risks from drilling and production

Publication with scenarios for minimizing pollution risks from drilling and production of fracking wells. Aim: Public dissemination of research on establishing scenarios with minimum pollution risks from drilling, fracking and production for shale gas exploitation. Scope: Research to scenarios with minimum pollution risks from shale gas operation provides boundary conditions for shale gas operations with low impact on water quality.

Publications with recommendations from the M4ShaleGas project

Publications with recommendations from the M4ShaleGas project. Aim: Public dissemination of all scientific recommendations resulting from M4ShaleGas research on technical and social aspects of shale gas exploitation. Scope: The integrated scientific recommendations provides a brief set of guidelines for different stakeholders in shale gas activities, and aids discussions on proper criteria for both technical and social licenses to operate.

EU based model of traffic-related impacts

Software: EU based model and supporting documentation for estimating traffic-related impacts from shale gas operations. Aim: Software tool for traffic-related impacts from shale gas operations. Scope: The software tool helps quantifying traffic-related impacts from shale gas operations, and thereby helps in assessing its relative importance and establishing boundary conditions to minimize impacts from shale gas well site infrastructure and transport in Europe.

Model tool carbon footprint from shale gas and other fuels

Model tool to calculate carbon footprint from shale gas and other fossil fuels. Aim: Software tool to calculate carbon footprint from shale gas compared to other fossil fuels. Scope: With the software tool the carbon footprint of different fossil fuels can be compared, thereby helping to assess the potential effect of large scale shale gas exploitation in Europe on the global climate.

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Publications

From shale to surface: best practice for microseismic reservoir monitoring

Author(s): M. Bohnhoff, P.E. Malin, J. ter Heege, M. Segou
Published in: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin (special issue on induced seismicity), Issue Submitted for review, 2016

Deliberating the perceived risks, benefits and societal implications of shale gas and oil extraction by hydraulic fracturing in the US and UK

Author(s): Thomas, Merryn, Partridge, Tristan, Herr Harthorn, Barbara and Pidgeon, Nicholas
Published in: Nature Energy, Issue 2, 2017, ISSN 0001-4966
DOI: 10.1038/nenergy.2017.54

An assessment of the footprint and carrying capacity of oil and gas well sites: The implications for limiting hydrocarbon reserves

Author(s): S.A. Clancy, F. Worrall, R.J. Davies, J.G. Gluyas
Published in: Science of The Total Environment, 2017, ISSN 0048-9697
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.160

Seeing futures now: Emergent US and UK views on shale development, climate change and energy systems

Author(s): T. Partridge, M.J. Thomas, et al.
Published in: Global Environmental Change, Issue 42, 2017, Page(s) 1-12, ISSN 0959-3780
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.11.002

The M4ShaleGas project: Measuring, Monitoring, Mitigating and Managing the environmental impact of shale gas

Author(s): J. ter Heege
Published in: GEO ENeRGY Newsletter, Issue 35, 2017, Page(s) 3

Modelling of fault reactivation and fault slip in producing gas fields using a slip-weakening friction law

Author(s): B.B.T. Wassing, L. Buijze, B. Orlic
Published in: Proceedings of the 50th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, Issue ARMA 16-658, 2016, Page(s) 1-11

Distribution and properties of faults and fractures in shales: Permeability model and implications for optimum flow stimulation by hydraulic fracturing

Author(s): J. ter Heege
Published in: Proceedings of the 50th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, Issue ARMA 16-363, 2016, Page(s) 1-11