Periodic Reporting for period 2 - ATOM (Advancing the state of the art of MIMO: the key to the successful evolution of wireless networks) Reporting period: 2018-02-01 to 2020-01-31 Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project Work Package 1The project management work package is responsible for the co-ordination of the project in terms of both administrative and technical aspects with clear objective to achieve effective and timely operation of the project in order to deliver high-quality scientific results and transfer of knowledge.Work Package 2The non-regenerative massive multi-input-multioutput (MIMO) non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) relay systems are investigated. The NOMA is invoked with a superposition coding technique at the transmitter and successive interference cancellation (SIC) technique at the receiver. In addition, a maximum mean square error-SIC receivers design is adopted. With the aid of deterministic equivalent and matrix analysis tools, a closed-form expression of the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) is derived. Work Package 3Investigation of the application of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) to non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). A new cooperative multiple-input-single-output (MISO) SWIPT NOMA protocol is proposed, where user 2 who has a strong channel condition acts as an energy-harvesting relay to help user 1 who has a poor channel condition. In order to, maximize the data rate of user 2 while satisfying the QoS requirement of user 1. The formulated problem boils down to a complicated nonconvex problem. Firstly, we use the semidefinite relaxation (SDR) technique to relax the nonconvex problem. Secondly, an iterative algorithm with the successive convex approximation (SCA) method is proposed to solve the relaxed problem. As a result, a local optimal solution is obtained. The cooperative SWIPT NOMA protocol design in SISO case is investigated and a semi-closed-form solution is derived, which can strictly guarantee the global optimality.Work Package 4Derivation of analytical expression for secrecy outage probability under Weibull fading when outdated channel state of eavesdropper link used by legitimate transmitter.Derivation of a closed-form expression for secrecy outage probability of a transmit-antenna-selection (TAS) SWIPT system operating in the presence of cooperating eavesdroppers employing on–off power splitting architecture. Derivation of a closed-form expression for the intercept probability of a Three-step Two-way Energy Harvesting decode-and-forward Relaying system subject to K-μ shadowed links.We have derived a novel exact expression for the ergodic capacity of a D2D communication system that uses MC-CDMA and operates in underlay mode with a cellular network. The gain in interference mitigation achieved by using the spread spectrum technique in a variety of interference scenarios is also analyzed.Work Package 5Devloped a ‘proof of concept’ testbed for the proposed MIMO heterogeneous architecture by Prof. Liow's group at UTM, Malaysia. Used the proposed testbed for assessing the effectiveness and performance of the ATOM approaches proposed in WPs 2-4 through experiments and simulation. Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far ATOM has successfully accelerated the transfer and deployment of research knowledge between European countries and third-country partners for providing a framework of advanced MIMO solutions for realizing green, secure and high data throughput wireless communications. From the research aspect, ATOM has developed a novel heterogeneous network architecture to boost network capacity by effectively exploiting the advantages of massive MIMO and NOMA. In addition, ATOM developed a rigorous algorithm-theoretic framework for maximizing energy efficiency by employing advanced MIMO techniques, where the novel concept of SWIPT has also been utilized. Furthermore, ATOM developed sophisticated security solutions by using MIMO, which bridged the gap between physical layer security and conventional cryptography. Finally ATOM developed a new wireless network testbed for carrying out experimental evaluations and closing the gap between theory and practice. ATOM published 100+ peer reviewed articles which appeared in international leading journals and conferences. Various knowledge transfer training events have been organized by ATOM, where the consortium members have also been invited to deliver keynote speech and plenary talks at many international conferences and workshops. ATOM'S measures for proper communication of the action(s) to the general public and the dissemination of the results:• 5G Sub Working Group (5G - SWG), Malaysia, in which UTM and UPM are members, are coordinating an initiative to be evaluators for 5G standards. Currently, the proposal has been presented to MCMC for approval and will be brought up to ITU for possible consideration.• As part of the ATOM project’s communication plan the project website has been established at the http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/scc/sites/atom/. ATOM's potentially important policy effects of the project with regards to EU policy making:• Professor Ding has pioneered in the design of non-orthogonal multiple access, and this contribution has been highlighted in the techUK whitepaper, “5G innovation opportunities - A discussion paper” ATOM'S actions for targeting entrepreneurship and R&I with strong industrial dimension include• 5G Sub Working Group (5G - SWG), Malaysia, in which UTM and UPM are members, are coordinating an initiative to be evaluators for 5G standards. Currently, the proposal has been presented to MCMC for approval and will be brought up to ITU for possible consideration.• As part of the ATOM project’s communication plan the project website has been established at the http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/scc/sites/atom/. The project impact so far or potential impact (social, scientific, technological)• Following the ATOM project, several focus areas on advanced MIMO, Multiple Access, etc for 5G has been established under the 5G Sub-Working Group (5G-SWG) Malaysia. The 5G SWG is a consortium of universities, industries and research institutions in Malaysia working together to contribute to the 5G IMT-2020 standardization activity and to create the public awareness about the social and economy impact of 5G. UTM is the secretariat of the 5G SWG and further details about 5G SWG can be found in the following link http://www.mtsfb.org.my/working-group/international-mobile-telecommunications-imt-wg Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far) Owing the fact that the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector contributes over 2% of the world CO2 gas emissions , resource utilization and reducing environmental impacts should be taken into account in the development of new communication techniques and designs. ATOM project contributes towards these goals through development of novel techniques by efficiently utilizing the wireless resources, including radio spectrum and energy. For example, different energy efficient based resource allocation techniques developed for cloud radio access networks in WP2 significantly improve the energy consumption while providing required quality of services at users. On the other hand, the work on non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes efficiently utilizes radio spectrum in contrast to the conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes. The deliverables associated with the WP3 utilizes newly emerging wireless power transfer techniques through simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) approaches. For example, SWIPT is exploited for secure communication and cooperative NOMA. “A Tutorial on Recent Progress in NOMA” by Prof Zhiguo Ding,10 Apr 2017. 2 Modeling, Characterization, and Estimation of Channels for 5G Communications talk Workshop about Energy Efficient MIMO Communication Networks 1 Midterm Meeting and workshop at University of York 2 Energy Harvesting as Enabler for 5G talk “A Tutorial on Recent Progress in NOMA” by Prof Zhiguo Ding,10 Apr 2017. 1 Midterm Meeting and workshop at University of York 1 Workshop about Energy Efficient MIMO Communication Networks 3 Workshop about Energy Efficient MIMO Communication Networks 2 Group photos at MIMOS, the Malaysia National R&D Centre in ICT. Kick-off meeting and workshop at Lancaster Random Linear Network Coding talk A review on the secrecy performance modeling and analysis of wireless systems Basics theory of Convex Optimization talk by Yuan Yi The first version of the virtual full duplex relay prototype developed by UTM.