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Precision Additive Metal Manufacturing

Deliverables

At least 2 journal and 2 conference papers/ ESR

Each ESR should aim, during his/her 3 year PAM^2 training period, to publish at least 2 journal papers and 2 conference papers; the conference papers will also be presented (either as a poster or an oral presentation) by the ESR.

Public website PAM^2

A public and interactive website will be made. The PAM^2 website will be used to publicly post the PAM^2 ESR vacancies and the PAM^2 dissemination activities (e.g. publications from open access sources or from journals that allow post-print archiving, press releases, YouTube videos, etc.) and announce relevant events. For example a plan for the public lectures will be made by M6 and published on the website and updated subsequently. There will also be an interactive part on the website, where anyone interested in the project can make comments or ask questions. The more popular part of the website will also provide access to the more in-depth research results, as far as these are in the public domain. Alternate ESRs will be in charge of answering the questions (for a month at a time). This will be coordinated by the WP5 leader (TUD).

YouTube movies of hands-on projects

During the network-wide workshops, hands-on training will be given in groups. Each group will work on a specific AM example that they carry with them from workshop to workshop, from computational design to product assessment. As a training for the students and as an outreach activity, they will document each hands-on session with a YouTube movie. This will form part of a number of movies documenting the whole production process. This series of movies, gradually released depending on the workshop schedule, can be used to train and inform the general public, but also to complement theoretical AM training given in the post-PAM^2 period. In addition, this series can form a positive ‘competition’ between the different ESR groups, where they can compete for the most views to their movie series. This competitive aspect will ensure that the quality of the movies is high and that the public is encouraged to view them. The ESRs in the group will take turns in making the movie. These movies will include references to in-depth information, e.g. PAM^2 papers published in open access journals, and thus act as an attractive portal to the scientific outcome of the program.

Understanding the relationship between the processing parameters of AM test cases and the internal and external quality of these parts

In-process high speed measurements of the melt pool (KU Leuven), post-process metrology results including post-AM CT (UNIPD) and TEM/SEM investigations of cross sections through parts, will be linked to understand the relationship between the processing parameters of the AM test cases and the internal and external quality of these parts. Understanding this relationship between processing parameters and quality of the part is the first step towards the possibility for in-process control.

Review and selection of appropriate post-process instrumentation and its use for the end-user case studies

Optical and x-ray methods will be reviewed, selected and further developed for the post-process measurement of the internal and external form of AM parts. In the optical case (UNOTT), modelling of the instrument response will be used to reduce systematic errors and improve instrument bandwidth (therefore, allowing the complex structures produced by AM to be measured effectively). In the X-ray CT case (UNIPD), standard methods for measuring AM parts and for estimating measurement uncertainties will be developed, and good practice guidance will be produced. The most appropriate post-process instrumentation and its use for the end-user case studies will be selected.

Report on in-situ and post-AM laser-based processes to improve the AM part surface

KIT will develop a post-AM laser-based finishing process for the reduction of surface roughness, control of surface hardness, surface wettability and the enhancement of edge quality. In addition, KU Leuven will develop an in-situ subtractive laser-based process that can be combined with the additive process to increase part accuracy, reduce part roughness and porosity by a factor of 10-16. A report of how the in-process and post-AM laser-based processes improve the surface properties of the AM part will be written.

Improved topology optimisation techniques

Advanced computational design tools, which enable effective 3D design of competitive precision components to be produced by AM, are developed. The newly developed topology optimisation techniques will target precision designs which are “AM ready” and hence do not require expensive re-engineering to make them suited for AM. The elimination or major reduction of these re-engineering steps will reduce costs, improve time-to-market and lead to designs with superior final precision and performance. PAM^2 gives the unique setting to build upon both AM process knowledge and new AM process models. The latter will be thoroughly integrated in topology optimisation tools for precision components. For this purpose, reduced-order AM process models will be developed which also provide the paramount sensitivity information. Computational modelling techniques will be developed in collaboration with the researchers in Task 1.2 and validated via collaboration with WP2 and WP3

Thermo-microstructural-mechanical model for precision AM and secondary processing

Process knowledge from WP2 partners and measurements from WP3 partners are used for setting up simulations and for calibrating the numerical process models. A coupled multi-scale thermo-metallurgical-mechanical model for simulating precision additive manufacturing is developed by using a local model for simulating laser-material interaction and melting/solidification processes and a global thermo-mechanical model for evaluating residual stresses and deformations. Smart, advanced modelling techniques to reduce computation time to an acceptable range while preserving accuracy are implemented and statistical methods for a robust calibration of the numerical models are applied. In addition, a thermo-microstructural-mechanical model of secondary processing of PAM^2 parts is developed through fast and accurate thermal, microstructural and mechanical solvers capable of handling large computational domains. The evolution of part porosities and resulting material properties is tracked by a developed thermal-microstructural model and constitutive modelling of materials to predict residual stresses and deformations is implemented.

Comparison of simulated and experimental behaviour of AM parts

The thermo-microstructural-mechanical models for precision AM and secondary processing (Task 1.2) are combined to simulate the entire precision additive manufacturing process chain. Residual stresses, deformations and mechanical-microstructural properties of parts designed in Task 1.1 are predicted and the results are validated in collaboration with WP2 and WP3 partners. Subsequent to successful validation of working models, numerical model based process optimisation and process uncertainty quantification of both SLM and secondary process are performed to better control the characteristics of the parts produced in PAM^2 as well as to increase the process knowledge base.

PAM^2 Summer schools

2 summer schools will be organised: Summer School 1, the Leadership course at NP TEC (M18) is part of D4.2. Summer School 2, covering an in-depth AM study takes place at UNIPD (M30) and consists of a technical training (3.5 days) given by senior researchers from all beneficiaries and partners to ensure an in-depth examination of all aspects of AM. The programme will be structured in 7 courses (1/2 day each) on the following topics: (1) General introduction to AM (review and more in-depth technical training on contents of Workshop 1); (2) Advanced system design, specs and computational design; (3) Advanced process modelling; (4) Manufacturing and process control; (5) Introduction to post-processing; (6) Metrology for AM; (7) Introduction to geometrical and functional assessment. Also a tour of the facilities and a Poster session is foreseen.

PAM^2 symposium at euspen conference

A special symposia will be organised at the euspen international conference (http://www.euspen.eu/) in June 2019 and June 2020. This symposium will be jointly organised with chairpersons from each beneficiary/partner (for example 4 sessions with 3 chairpersons each) who will be in charge of inviting keynote speakers and chairing the session.

Prototype in-process instrument characterised

A hybrid optical system will be developed, which combines a vision system with a focus variation system. The hybrid system will be capable of measuring the presence of defects and then measuring the topography of such defects. The system will be developed as a collaboration between UNOTT and ALICON. The prototype in-process instrument will characterized and a report will be written.

Publications

Precision Additive Metal Manufacturing (PAM^2)

Author(s): Ann Witvrouw
Published in: Special Interest Group Meeting : Quality Control for Additive Manufacturing, Issue 23-24 January 2017, 2017

In situ combination of Selective Laser Melting and Selective Laser Erosion for edge effect removal

Author(s): Jitka Metelkova, Yanis Kinds, Charlotte de Formanoir, Ann Witvrouw, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Controlling Local Overheating in Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

Author(s): R. Ranjan, Y. Yang, C. Ayas, M. Langelaar, F. Van Keulen
Published in: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, October 2017, 2017

Characterization of AM Metal Powder with an Industrial Microfocus CT: Potential and Limitations

Author(s): Mirko Sinico, Evelina Ametova, Ann Witvrouw, Wim Dewulf
Published in: 2018 ASPE and euspen Summer Topical Meeting - Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Issue Volume 69, 2018

A new design for an extensive benchmarking of additive manufacturing machines

Author(s): Mandaná Moshiri Guido Tosello Sankhya Mohanty
Published in: EUSPEN´s 18th International Conference & Exhibition, 2018

Towards design for precision additive manufacturing: a simplified approach for heat accumulation detection

Author(s): R. Ranjan, C. Ayas, M. Langelaar, F. Van Keulen
Published in: 2018 ASPE and euspen Summer Topical Meeting: Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Issue Volume 69, 2018, Page(s) 29-34

PRECISION ADDITIVE METAL MANUFACTURING

Author(s): Ann Witvrouw, Jitka Metelkova, Rajit Ranjan, Mohamad Bayat, David De Baere, Mandaná Moshiri, Guido Tosello, Juliana Solheid, Amal Charles, Steffen Scholz, Markus Baier, Simone Carmignato, Petros Stavroulakis, Amrozia Shaheen, Lore Thijs
Published in: 2018 ASPE and euspen Summer Topical Meeting 'Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing', Issue Volume 69, 2018, Page(s) 18-23

A new conversion approach between different characterization methods to measure the spot size of micro computed tomography systems

Author(s): Markus Baier Filippo Zanini Enrico Savio Simone Carmignato
Published in: Conference Proceedings 18th International Conference & Exhibition, Issue 18, 2018, Page(s) 445-446

Evaluation Method to Determine the Focal Spot Size of a CT System with a new Designed Resolution Test-chart

Author(s): Markus Baier
Published in: Proc. 8th ICT conference, Issue 8, 2018, Page(s) 208-209

Laser-assisted post-processing of additive manufactured metallic parts

Author(s): Juliana dos Solheid Hans Jürgen Seifert Wilhelm Pfleging
Published in: EUSPEN's 18th International Conference & Exhibition, 2018

Defects investigation in additively manufactured steel products for injection moulding

Author(s): Mandaná Moshiri Guido Tosello Sankhya Mohanty
Published in: 2018

Study of keyhole-porosities in selective laser melting using X-ray computed tomography

Author(s): Aditi Thanki Louca Goosens Raya Mertens Gabriel Probst Wim Dewulf Ann Witvrouw Shoufeng Yang
Published in: 2019

Guidelines for improving the quality of downfacing surfaces in Selective Laser Melting of metals

Author(s): Umberto Paggi, Lore Thijs, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: 3rd Workshop on Metal Additive Manufacturing, Issue Annual, 2018

Comparative study of cost effective laser and DLP projectors for fringe projection

Author(s): Amrozia Shaheen, Petros Stavroulakis, Richard Leach
Published in: 2018

A study of the factors influencing generated surface roughness of down-facing surfaces in Selective Laser Melting

Author(s): Amal Charles Prashanth, Ahmed Elkaseer, Tobias Müller, Lore Thijs, Maika Torge, Veit Hagenmeyer, Steffen Scholz
Published in: World Congress on Micro and Nano Manufacturing 2018, Issue 2, 2018, Page(s) 327-330

Effect of process parameters on dimensional accuracy of down-facing surfaces in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V

Author(s): Amal Charles Prashanth, Ahmed Elkaseer, Tobias Mueller, Lore Thijs, Veit Hagenmeyer, Steffen Scholz
Published in: 2018 ASPE and euspen Summer Topical Meeting: Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing, Issue Volume 69, 2018, Page(s) 83-88

Controlling local overheating in additive manufacturing parts using topology optimization

Author(s): Rajit Ranjan Yabin Yang Can Ayas Matthijs Langelaar Fred van Keulen
Published in: 2018

Progress in realising a fast information-enriched complex form measurement system

Author(s): Petros Stavroulakis, Patrick Bointon, Danny Sims-Waterhouse, Amrozia Shaheen, Samanta Piano, Richard Leach
Published in: 2017

Experimental analysis of laser post-processing of additive manufactured metallic parts

Author(s): Juliana S. Solheid, Hans. J. Seifert, Wilhelm Pfleging
Published in: Materials Science and Engineering Congress 2018, 2018

Modelling of the microstructural evolution of Ti6Al4V parts produced by selective laser melting during heat treatment

Author(s): David De Baere, Emilie Hørdum Valente, Sankhya Mohanty, Jesper Henri Hattel
Published in: euspen's 18th International Conference & Exhibition, 2018

Numerical modelling and parametric study of grain morphology and resultant mechanical properties from selective laser melting process of Ti6Al4V

Author(s): Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, Jesper H Hattel
Published in: EUSPEN 18th International Conference & Exhibition, 2018

MULTI-SCALE MULTIPHYSICS SIMULATION OF METAL L-PBF AM PROCESS AND SUBSEQUENT MECHANICAL ANALYSIS

Author(s): M Bayat, D De Baere, Sankhya Mohanty, J H Hattel
Published in: Proceeding of 12th International Seminar on Numerical Analysis of Weldability , 2018

Thermo-fluid-metallurgical modelling of laser-based powder bed fusion process

Author(s): Mohamad Bayat; Sankhya Mohanty; Jesper H. Hattel
Published in: 2018

On-machine optical surface topography measurement sensor based on focus variation

Author(s): Subbareddy Darukumalli Teguh Santoso Wahyudin P. Syam Franz Helmli Richard Leach
Published in: 19th International Conference Proceedings: Bilbao 2019, 2019

Investigation of laser defocusing for increased productivity in Selective Laser Melting

Author(s): Jitka Metelkova Yannis Kinds Karolien Kempen Charlotte de Formanoir Ann Witvrouw Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: 4th Workshop on Metal Additive Manufacturing, Issue Annual, 2019

On the influence of overheating in downfacing regions on the surface quality and geometrical accuracy

Author(s): Umberto Paggi, Rajit Ranjan, Lore Thijs, Can Ayas, Matthijs Langelaar, Fred van Keulen, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: 4th Workshop on Metal Additive Manufacturing, Issue Annual, 2019

A Mold Insert Case Study on Topology Optimized Design for Additive Manufacturing

Author(s): Mirko Sinico, Rajit Ranjan, Mandaná Moshiri, Can Ayas, Matthijs Langelaar, Ann Witvrouw, Fred van Keulen, Wim Dewulf
Published in: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Issue 2019, 2019, Page(s) 1921-1951

Elevated edges of metal parts produced by laser powder bed fusion: characterization and post-process correction

Author(s): Jitka Metelkova, Charlotte de Formanoir, Han Haitjema, Ann Witvrouw, Wilhelm Pfleging, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: Conference Proceedings : Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Influence of the particle size distribution on surface quality of Maraging 300 parts produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

Author(s): Mirko Sinico, Ann Witvrouw, Wim Dewulf
Published in: Conference Proceedings : Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

ANN based prediction of dimensional error in down-facing surfaces for laser powder bed fusion parts

Author(s): Amal Charles, Ahmed Elkaseer, Mahmoud Salem, Lore Thijs, Steffen Scholz
Published in: Conference Proceedings : Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Improving the dimensional accuracy of downfacing surfaces of additively manufactured parts

Author(s): Umberto Paggi, Mirko Sinico, Lore Thijs, Wim Dewulf, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: Conference Proceedings : Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

New support structures for reduced overheating on downfacing regions of Direct Metal Printed parts

Author(s): Umberto Paggi, Rajit Ranjan, Lore Thijs, Can Ayas, Matthijs Langelaar, Fred Van Keulen, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium 2019, Issue 2019, 2019, Page(s) 1626-1640

Part-scale finite element thermo-mechanical modelling and validation of selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V

Author(s): Mohamad Bayat, Christopher G. Klingaa, Sankhya Mohanty, Jesper H. Hattel
Published in: EUROMAT 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Detecting Overheating in AM Parts using Computationally Efficient Thermal Models

Author(s): Rajit Ranjan, Matthijs Langelaar, Can Ayas, Fred Van Keulen
Published in: SIM-AM conference 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Improving metal additive manufacturing part design and final part precision using feedback from X-ray computed tomography

Author(s): Markus Baier, Mirko Sinico, Umberto Paggi, Ann Witvrouw, Lore Thijs, Wim Dewulf, Simone Carmignato
Published in: Conference Proceedings : Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Effect of process parameters on surface texture generated by laser polishing of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

Author(s): dos Santos Solheid, Juliana; Elkaseer, Ahmed; Wunsch, Torsten; Charles, Amal; Seifert, Hans Jürgen; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Klotzbach, Udo [Hrsg.]; Kling, Rainer [Hrsg.]; Watanabe, Akira [Hrsg.]
Published in: Laser-based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XIV, Issue 11268, 2020
DOI: 10.5445/ir/1000117583

Improving metal additive manufacturing part design and final part precision using feedback from X-ray computed tomography

Author(s): Baier, Markus; Sinico, Mirko; Paggi, Umberto; Witvrouw, Ann; Thijs, Lore; Dewulf, Wim; Carmignato, Simone
Published in: Conference Proceedings: Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 1, 2019

Automated characterisation of multi-view fringe projection system for three- dimensional measurement of additively manufactured parts

Author(s): Shaheen A., Piano S., Sims-Waterhouse D., Bointon P., Leach R. K
Published in: Conference Proceedings : Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

Investigation on precision of laser powder bed fusion process using statistical process control

Author(s): Lokesh Chandrabalan, Emanuele Matoni, Martina Malarco, Eugenio Del Puglia, Luca Ammannato, Simone Carmignato
Published in: Conference Proceedings: Advancing Precision in Additive Manufacturing 2019, Issue 2019, 2019

On the influence of laser defocusing in Selective Laser Melting of 316L

Author(s): Jitka Metelkova, Yannis Kinds, Karolien Kempen, Charlotte de Formanoir, Ann Witvrouw, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: Additive Manufacturing, Issue 23, 2018, Page(s) 161-169, ISSN 2214-8604
DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.08.006

Laser surface modification and polishing of additive manufactured metallic parts

Author(s): Juliana dos Santos Solheid, Hans Jürgen Seifert, Wilhelm Pfleging
Published in: Procedia CIRP, Issue 74, 2018, Page(s) 280-284, ISSN 2212-8271
DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2018.08.111

Thermo-fluid-metallurgical modelling of the selective laser melting process chain

Author(s): David De Baere, Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, Jesper Hattel
Published in: Procedia CIRP, Issue 74, 2018, Page(s) 87-91, ISSN 2212-8271
DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2018.08.035

Benchmarking of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Machines

Author(s): Mandaná Moshiri Stefano Candeo Simone Carmignato Snakhya Mohanty Guido Tosello
Published in: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, Issue 3/4, 2019, Page(s) 85, ISSN 2504-4494
DOI: 10.3390/jmmp3040085

Effect of Process Parameters on the Generated Surface Roughness of Down-Facing Surfaces in Selective Laser Melting

Author(s): Amal Charles Prashanth, Ahmed Elkaseer, Lore Thijs, Veit Hagenmeyer, Steffen Scholz
Published in: Applied Sciences, Issue Volume 9, Issue 6, 2019, ISSN 2076-3417

Laboratory X-ray tomography for metal additive manufacturing: Round robin test

Author(s): Anton du Plessis, Stephan G. le Roux, Jess Waller, Philip Sperling, Nils Achilles, Andre Beerlink, Jean-François Métayer, Mirko Sinico, Gabriel Probst, Wim Dewulf, Florian Bittner, Hans-Josef Endres, Marian Willner, Ágota Drégelyi-Kiss, Tomas Zikmund, Jakub Laznovsky, Jozef Kaiser, Pascal Pinter, Stefan Dietrich, Elena Lopez, Oliver Fitzek, Porebski Konrad
Published in: Additive Manufacturing, Issue 30, 2019, Page(s) 100837, ISSN 2214-8604
DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100837

Multiphysics modelling of lack-of-fusion voids formation and evolution in IN718 made by multi-track/multi-layer L-PBF

Author(s): Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, Jesper Henri Hattel
Published in: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Issue 139, 2019, Page(s) 95-114, ISSN 0017-9310
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.003

A systematic investigation of the effects of process parameters on heat and fluid flow and metallurgical conditions during laser-based powder bed fusion of Ti6Al4V alloy

Author(s): Mohamad Bayat, Sankhya Mohanty, Jesper Henri Hattel
Published in: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Issue 139, 2019, Page(s) 213-230, ISSN 0017-9310
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.05.017

Keyhole-induced porosities in Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) of Ti6Al4V: High-fidelity modelling and experimental validation

Author(s): Mohamad Bayat, Aditi Thanki, Sankhya Mohanty, Ann Witvrouw, Shoufeng Yang, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tiedje, Jesper Henri Hattel
Published in: Additive Manufacturing, Issue 30, 2019, Page(s) 100835, ISSN 2214-8604
DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100835

On-machine and in-process surface metrology for precision manufacturing

Author(s): W. Gao, H. Haitjema, F.Z. Fang, R.K. Leach, C.F. Cheung, E. Savio, J.M. Linares
Published in: CIRP Annals, Issue 68/2, 2019, Page(s) 843-866, ISSN 0007-8506
DOI: 10.1016/j.cirp.2019.05.005

Geometrical metrology for metal additive manufacturing

Author(s): R.K. Leach, D. Bourell, S. Carmignato, A. Donmez, N. Senin, W. Dewulf
Published in: CIRP Annals, Issue 68/2, 2019, Page(s) 677-700, ISSN 0007-8506
DOI: 10.1016/j.cirp.2019.05.004

Laser polishing of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V - Microstructure evolution and material properties [in press]

Author(s): Solheid, Juliana; Mohanty, Sankhya; Bayat, Mohamad; Wunsch, Torsten; Weidler, Peter G.; Seifert, Hans J.; Pfleging, Wilhelm
Published in: Journal of Laser Applications, Issue 1, 2020, ISSN 1042-346X
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000104497

Improving the quality of up-facing inclined surfaces in laser powder bed fusion of metals using a dual laser setup

Author(s): Jitka Metelkova, Daniel Ordnung, Yannis Kinds, Ann Witvrouw, Brecht Van Hooreweder
Published in: Procedia CIRP, Issue 94, 2020, Page(s) 266-269, ISSN 2212-8271
DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2020.09.050

Thermal constraint in topology optimisation

Author(s): MIRKO SINICO, RAJIT RANJAN, MANDANÁ MOSHIRI, CAN AYAS, MATTHIJS LANGELAAR, FRED VAN KEULEN, WIM DEWULF AND ANN WITVROUW
Published in: Mikroniek, Issue Issue 5, 2019, Page(s) 23-28, ISSN 0026-3699

External Shape Measurement for Industrial Applications Using Artificial Intelligence and Optimised Data Fusion

Author(s): Petros Stavroulakis, Danny Sims-Waterhouse, Amrozia Shaheen, Sofia Catalucci, Patrick Bointon, Elodie Doyen, Yael Bis Kong, Yorgos Tzimiropoulos, Richard Leach
Published in: Intelligent Systems and Applications - Proceedings of the 2018 Intelligent Systems Conference (IntelliSys) Volume 2, Issue 869, 2019, Page(s) 1273-1281
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-01057-7_96